Bible Prophecy Research
Title: Geneva Accord
Submitted by: email@example.com
The following is the text of the Geneva Accord printed in the Israeli daily Haaretz:
Draft Permanent Status Agreement
The State of Israel (hereinafter "Israel") and the Palestine Liberation Organization (hereinafter "PLO"), the representative of the Palestinian people (hereinafter the "Parties"):
Reaffirming their determination to put an end to decades of confrontation and conflict, and to live in peaceful coexistence, mutual dignity and security based on a just, lasting, and comprehensive peace and achieving historic reconciliation;
Recognizing that peace requires the transition from the logic of war and confrontation to the logic of peace and cooperation, and that acts and words characteristic of the state of war are neither appropriate nor acceptable in the era of peace;
Affirming their deep belief that the logic of peace requires compromise, and that the only viable solution is a two-state solution based on UNSC Resolution 242 and 338;
Affirming that this agreement marks the recognition of the right of the Jewish people to statehood and the recognition of the right of the Palestinian people to statehood, without prejudice to the equal rights of the Parties' respective citizens;
Recognizing that after years of living in mutual fear and insecurity, both peoples need to enter an era of peace, security and stability, entailing all necessary actions by the parties to guarantee the realization of this era;
Recognizing each other's right to peaceful and secure existence within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force;
Determined to establish relations based on cooperation and the commitment to live side by side as good neighbors aiming both separately and jointly to contribute to the well-being of their peoples;
Reaffirming their obligation to conduct themselves in conformity with the norms of international law and the Charter of the United Nations;
Confirming that this Agreement is concluded within the framework of the Middle East peace process initiated in Madrid in October 1991, the Declaration of Principles of September 13, 1993, the subsequent agreements including the Interim Agreement of September 1995, the Wye River Memorandum of October 1998 and the Sharm El-Sheikh Memorandum of September 4, 1999, and the permanent status negotiations including the Camp David Summit of July 2000, the Clinton Ideas of December 2000, and the Taba Negotiations of January 2001;
Reiterating their commitment to United Nations Security Council Resolutions 242, 338 and 1397 and confirming their understanding that this Agreement is based on, will lead to, and - by its fulfillment - will constitute the full implementation of these resolutions and to the settlement of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict in all its aspects;
Declaring that this Agreement constitutes the realization of the permanent status peace component envisaged in President Bush's speech of June 24, 2002 and in the Quartet Roadmap process;
Declaring that this Agreement marks the historic reconciliation between the Palestinians and Israelis, and paves the way to reconciliation between the Arab World and Israel and the establishment of normal, peaceful relations between the Arab states and Israel in accordance with the relevant clauses of the Beirut Arab League Resolution of March 28, 2002; and
Resolved to pursue the goal of attaining a comprehensive regional peace, thus contributing to stability, security, development and prosperity throughout the region;
Have agreed on the following:
Article 1 - Purpose of the Permanent Status Agreement
1. The Permanent Status Agreement (hereinafter "this Agreement") ends the era of conflict and ushers in a new era based on peace, cooperation, and good neighborly relations between the Parties.
2. The implementation of this Agreement will settle all the claims of the Parties arising from events occurring prior to its signature. No further claims related to events prior to this Agreement may be raised by either Party.
Article 2 - Relations between the Parties
1. The state of Israel shall recognize the state of Palestine (hereinafter "Palestine") upon its establishment. The state of Palestine shall immediately recognize the state of Israel.
2. The state of Palestine shall be the successor to the PLO with all its rights and obligations.
3. Israel and Palestine shall immediately establish full diplomatic and consular relations with each other and will exchange resident Ambassadors, within one month of their mutual recognition.
4. The Parties recognize Palestine and Israel as the homelands of their respective peoples. The Parties are committed not to interfere in each other's internal affairs.
5. This Agreement supercedes all prior agreements between the Parties.
6. Without prejudice to the commitments undertaken by them in this Agreement, relations between Israel and Palestine shall be based upon the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations.
7. With a view to the advancement of the relations between the two States and peoples, Palestine and Israel shall cooperate in areas of common interest. These shall include, but are not limited to, dialogue between their legislatures and state institutions, cooperation between their appropriate local authorities, promotion of non-governmental civil society cooperation, and joint programs and exchange in the areas of culture, media, youth, science, education, environment, health, agriculture, tourism, and crime prevention. The Israeli-Palestinian Cooperation Committee will oversee this cooperation in accordance with Article 8.
8. The Parties shall cooperate in areas of joint economic interest, to best realize the human potential of their respective peoples. In this regard, they will work bilaterally, regionally, and with the international community to maximize the benefit of peace to the broadest cross-section of their respective populations. Relevant standing bodies shall be established by the Parties to this effect.
9. The Parties shall establish robust modalities for security cooperation, and engage in a comprehensive and uninterrupted effort to end terrorism and violence directed against each others persons, property, institutions or territory. This effort shall continue at all times, and shall be insulated from any possible crises and other aspects of the Parties' relations.
10. Israel and Palestine shall work together and separately with other parties in the region to enhance and promote regional cooperation and coordination in spheres of common interest.
11. The Parties shall establish a ministerial-level Palestinian-Israeli High Steering Committee to guide, monitor, and facilitate the process of implementation of this Agreement, both bilaterally and in accordance with the mechanisms in Article 3 hereunder.
Article 3: Implementation and Verification Group
1. Establishment and Composition
(b) The IVG shall include the U.S., the Russian Federation, the EU, the UN, and other parties, both regional and international, to be agreed on by the Parties.
(c) The IVG shall work in coordination with the Palestinian-Israeli High Steering Committee established in Article 2/11 above and subsequent to that with the Israeli-Palestinian Cooperation Committee (IPCC) established in Article 8 hereunder.
(d) The structure, procedures, and modalities of the IVG are set forth below and detailed in Annex X.
(b) The Contact Group shall appoint, in consultation with the Parties, a Special Representative who will be the principal executive of the IVG on the ground. The Special Representative shall manage the work of the IVG and maintain constant contact with the Parties, the Palestinian-Israeli High Steering Committee, and the Contact Group.
(c) The IVG permanent headquarters and secretariat shall be based in an agreed upon location in Jerusalem.
(d) The IVG shall establish its bodies referred to in this Agreement and additional bodies as it deems necessary. These bodies shall be an integral part of and under the authority of the IVG.
(e) The Multinational Force (MF) established under Article 5 shall be an integral part of the IVG. The Special Representative shall, subject to the approval of the Parties, appoint the Commander of the MF who shall be responsible for the daily command of the MF. Details relating to the Special Representative and MF Force Commander are set forth in Annex X.
(f) The IVG shall establish a dispute settlement mechanism, in accordance with Article 16.
3. Coordination with the
Article 4 - Territory
1. The International Borders
between the States of Palestine and Israel
(b) The Parties recognize the border, as set out in attached Map 1, as the permanent, secure and recognized international boundary between them.
2. Sovereignty and Inviolability
(b) The Parties recognize each other's rights in their exclusive economic zones in accordance with international law.
3. Israeli Withdrawal
(b) Palestine shall assume responsibility for the areas from which Israel withdraws.
(c) The transfer of authority from Israel to Palestine shall be in accordance with Annex X.
(d) The IVG shall monitor, verify, and facilitate the implementation of this Article.
(b) Any disagreement in the Commission shall be referred to the IVG in accordance with Annex X.
(c) The physical demarcation of the international borders shall be completed by the Commission not later than nine months from the date of the entry into force of this Agreement.
(b) The resettlement shall be completed according to the schedule stipulated in Article 5.
(c) Existing arrangements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip regarding Israeli settlers and settlements, including security, shall remain in force in each of the settlements until the date prescribed in the timetable for the completion of the evacuation of the relevant settlement.
(d) Modalities for the assumption of authority over settlements by Palestine are set forth in Annex X. The IVG shall resolve any disputes that may arise during its implementation.
(e) Israel shall keep intact the immovable property, infrastructure and facilities in Israeli settlements to be transferred to Palestinian sovereignty. An agreed inventory shall be drawn up by the Parties with the IVG in advance of the completion of the evacuation and in accordance with Annex X.
(f) The state of Palestine shall have exclusive title to all land and any buildings, facilities, infrastructure or other property remaining in any of the settlements on the date prescribed in the timetable for the completion of the evacuation of this settlement.
(b) Defensive barriers shall be established along the corridor and Palestinians shall not enter Israel from this corridor, nor shall Israelis enter Palestine from the corridor.
(c) The Parties shall seek the assistance of the international community in securing the financing for the corridor.
(d) The IVG shall guarantee the implementation of this Article in accordance with Annex X.
(e) Any disputes arising between the Parties from the operation of the corridor shall be resolved in accordance with Article 16.
(f) The arrangements set forth in this clause may only be terminated or revised by agreement of both Parties.
Article 5 - Security
1. General Security Provisions
(b) Palestine and Israel each
(c) To further security cooperation, the Parties shall establish a high level Joint Security Committee that shall meet on at least a monthly basis. The Joint Security Committee shall have a permanent joint office, and may establish such sub-committees as it deems necessary, including sub-committees to immediately resolve localized tensions.
2. Regional Security
ii. To this end, the Parties shall work together to establish a regional security regime.
3. Defense Characteristics
of the Palestinian State
(b) Palestine shall be a non-militarized
state, with a strong security force. Accordingly, the limitations
on the weapons that may be purchased, owned, or used by the Palestinian
Security Force (PSF) or manufactured in Palestine shall be specified
in Annex X. Any proposed changes to Annex X shall be considered
by a trilateral committee composed of the two Parties and the
MF. If no agreement is reached in the trilateral committee, the
IVG may make its own recommendations.
(c) The PSF shall:
(d) The MF shall monitor and verify compliance with this clause.
(b) The Parties shall take joint and, in their respective territories, unilateral comprehensive and continuous efforts against all aspects of violence and terrorism. These efforts shall include the prevention and preemption of such acts, and the prosecution of their perpetrators.
(c) To that end, the Parties shall maintain ongoing consultation, cooperation, and exchange of information between their respective security forces.
(d) A Trilateral Security Committee composed of the two Parties and the United States shall be formed to ensure the implementation of this Article. The Trilateral Security Committee shall develop comprehensive policies and guidelines to fight terrorism and violence.
(b) The IVG shall assist the Parties in establishing guidelines for the implementation of this clause, and shall monitor the Parties' adherence thereto.
6. Multinational Force
(b) The composition, structure and size of the MF are set forth in Annex X.
(c) To perform the functions specified in this Agreement, the MF shall be deployed in the state of Palestine. The MF shall enter into the appropriate Status of Forces Agreement (SOFA) with the state of Palestine.
(d) In accordance with this
Agreement, and as detailed in Annex X, the MF shall:
ii. Serve as a deterrent against external attacks that could threaten either of the Parties.
iii. Deploy observers to areas adjacent to the lines of the Israeli withdrawal during the phases of this withdrawal, in accordance with Annex X.
iv. Deploy observers to monitor the territorial and maritime borders of the state of Palestine, as specified in clause 5/13.
v. Perform the functions on the Palestinian international border crossings specified in clause 5/12.
vi. Perform the functions relating to the early warning stations as specified in clause 5/8.
vii. Perform the functions specified in clause 5/3.
viii. Perform the functions specified in clause 5/7.
ix. Perform the functions specified in Article 10.
x. Help in the enforcement of anti-terrorism measures.
xi. Help in the training of the PSF.
(e) In relation to the above, the MF shall report to and update the IVG in accordance with Annex X.
(f) The MF shall only be withdrawn or have its mandate changed by agreement of the Parties.
(b) The staged withdrawals shall commence immediately upon entry into force of this Agreement and shall be made in accordance with the timetable and modalities set forth in Annex X.
(c) The stages shall be designed
subject to the following principles:
ii. Israel's capacity to relocate, house and absorb settlers. While costs and inconveniences are inherent in such a process, these shall not be unduly disruptive.
iii. The need to construct and operationalize the border between the two states.
iv. The introduction and effective functioning of the MF, in particular on the eastern border of the state of Palestine.
(d) Accordingly, the withdrawal
shall be implemented in the following stages:
ii. The second and third stages shall include the remainder of the territory of the state of Palestine and shall be completed within 21 months of the end of the first stage.
(e) Israel shall complete its withdrawal from the territory of the state of Palestine within 30 months of the entry into force of this Agreement, and in accordance with this Agreement.
(f) Israel will maintain a small military presence in the Jordan Valley under the authority of the MF and subject to the MF SOFA as detailed in Annex X for an additional 36 months. The stipulated period may be reviewed by the Parties in the event of relevant regional developments, and may be altered by the Parties' consent.
(g) In accordance with Annex X, the MF shall monitor and verify compliance with this clause.
8. Early Warning Stations
(b) The EWS shall be staffed by the minimal required number of Israeli personnel and shall occupy the minimal amount of land necessary for their operation as set forth in Annex X.
(c) Access to the EWS will be guaranteed and escorted by the MF.
(d) Internal security of the EWS shall be the responsibility of Israel. The perimeter security of the EWS shall be the responsibility of the MF.
(e) The MF and the PSF shall maintain a liaison presence in the EWS. The MF shall monitor and verify that the EWS is being used for purposes recognized by this Agreement as detailed in Annex X.
(f) The arrangements set forth in this Article shall be subject to review in ten years, with any changes to be mutually agreed. Thereafter, there will be five-yearly reviews whereby the arrangements set forth in this Article may be extended by mutual consent.
(g) If at any point during the period specified above a regional security regime is established, then the IVG may request that the Parties review whether to continue or revise operational uses for the EWS in light of these developments. Any such change will require the mutual consent of the Parties.
ii. In addition, the Parties shall, upon entry into force of this Agreement, establish a trilateral committee composed of the two Parties and the IVG to design the most efficient management system for civil aviation, including those relevant aspects of the air traffic control system. In the absence of consensus the IVG may make its own recommendations.
ii. The IVG shall monitor and verify compliance with this clause. Either Party may submit a complaint to the IVG whose decision shall be conclusive.
iii. The arrangements set forth in this clause shall be subject to review every ten years, and may be altered or terminated by the agreement of both Parties.
10. Electromagnetic Sphere
(b) Annex X shall detail arrangements relating to the use of the electromagnetic sphere.
(c) The IVG shall monitor and verify the implementation of this clause and Annex X.
(d) Any Party may submit a complaint to the IVG whose decision shall be conclusive.
11. Law Enforcement
12. International Border
(b) All border crossings shall be monitored by joint teams composed of members of the PSF and the MF. These teams shall prevent the entry into Palestine of any weapons, materials or equipment that are in contravention of the provisions of this Agreement.
(c) The MF representatives and the PSF will have, jointly and separately, the authority to block the entry into Palestine of any such items. If at any time a disagreement regarding the entrance of goods or materials arises between the PSF and the MF representatives, the PSF may bring the matter to the IVG, whose binding conclusions shall be rendered within 24 hours.
(d) This arrangement shall be reviewed by the IVG after 5 years to determine its continuation, modification or termination. Thereafter, the Palestinian party may request such a review on an annual basis.
(e) In passenger terminals, for thirty months, Israel may maintain an unseen presence in a designated on-site facility, to be staffed by members of the MF and Israelis, utilizing appropriate technology. The Israeli side may request that the MF-PSF conduct further inspections and take appropriate action.
(f) For the following two years, these arrangements will continue in a specially designated facility in Israel, utilizing appropriate technology. This shall not cause delays beyond the procedures outlined in this clause.
(g) In cargo terminals, for thirty months, Israel may maintain an unseen presence in a designated on-site facility, to be staffed by members of the MF and Israelis, utilizing appropriate technology. The Israeli side may request that the MF-PSF conduct further inspections and take appropriate action. If the Israeli side is not satisfied by the MF-PSF action, it may demand that the cargo be detained pending a decision by an MF inspector. The MF inspector's decision shall be binding and final, and shall be rendered within 12 hours of the Israeli complaint.
(h) For the following three years, these arrangements will continue from a specially designated facility in Israel, utilizing appropriate technology. This shall not cause delays beyond the timelines outlined in this clause.
(i) A high level trilateral committee composed of representatives of Palestine, Israel, and the IVG shall meet regularly to monitor the application of these procedures and correct any irregularities, and may be convened on request.
(j) The details of the above are set forth in Annex X.
13. Border Control
(b) The MF shall monitor and verify the maintenance of border control by the PSF.
Article 6 - Jerusalem
1. Religious and Cultural
(b) The Parties shall establish an inter-faith body consisting of representatives of the three monotheistic faiths, to act as a consultative body to the Parties on matters related to the city's religious significance and to promote inter-religious understanding and dialogue. The composition, procedures, and modalities for this body are set forth in Annex X.
2. Capital of Two States
4. Border Regime
5. al-Haram al-Sharif/Temple
ii. For this purpose, the International Group shall establish a Multinational Presence on the Compound, the composition, structure, mandate and functions of which are set forth in Annex X.
iii. The Multinational Presence shall have specialized detachments dealing with security and conservation. The Multinational Presence shall make periodic conservation and security reports to the International Group. These reports shall be made public.
iv. The Multinational Presence shall strive to immediately resolve any problems arising and may refer any unresolved disputes to the International Group that will function in accordance with Article 16.
v. The Parties may at any time request clarifications or submit complaints to the International Group which shall be promptly investigated and acted upon.
vi. The International Group shall draw up rules and regulations to maintain security on and conservation of the Compound. These shall include lists of the weapons and equipment permitted on the site.
(b) Regulations Regarding the
ii. The state of Palestine shall be responsible for maintaining the security of the Compound and for ensuring that it will not be used for any hostile acts against Israelis or Israeli areas. The only arms permitted on the Compound shall be those carried by the Palestinian security personnel and the security detachment of the Multinational Presence.
iii. In light of the universal significance of the Compound, and subject to security considerations and to the need not to disrupt religious worship or decorum on the site as determined by the Waqf, visitors shall be allowed access to the site. This shall be without any discrimination and generally be in accordance with past practice.
(c) Transfer of Authority
ii. The International Group and its subsidiary organs shall continue to exist and fulfill all the functions stipulated in this Article unless otherwise agreed by the two Parties.
6. The Wailing Wall
7. The Old City
ii. The Parties shall act in accordance with the UNESCO World Cultural Heritage List regulations, in which the Old City is a registered site.
(b) IVG Role in the Old City
iii. Either Party may submit complaints in relation to this clause to the IVG, which shall promptly act upon them in accordance with Article 16.
(c) Free Movement within the
(d) Entry into and Exit from
the Old City
ii. With a view to facilitating movement into the Old City, each Party shall take such measures at the entry points in its territory as to ensure the preservation of security in the Old City. The PU shall monitor the operation of the entry points.
iii. Citizens of either Party may not exit the Old City into the territory of the other Party unless they are in possession of the relevant documentation that entitles them to. Tourists may only exit the Old City into the territory of the Party which they posses valid authorization to enter.
(e) Suspension, Termination,
ii. This clause shall not apply to the arrangements set forth in Article 6/7/vi.
iii. Three years after the transfer of authority over the Old City, the Parties shall review these arrangements. These arrangements may only be terminated by agreement of the Parties.
iv. The Parties shall examine the possibility of expanding these arrangements beyond the Old City and may agree to such an expansion.
(f) Special Arrangements
ii. Without prejudice to Palestinian sovereignty, Israeli administration of the Citadel will be as outlined in Annex X.
(g) Color-Coding of the Old
ii. An agreed number of Palestinian police shall constitute the Palestinian Old City police detachment and shall exercise responsibility for maintaining order and day-to-day policing functions in the area under Palestinian sovereignty.
iii. All members of the respective Israeli and Palestinian Old City police detachments shall undergo special training, including joint training exercises, to be administered by the PU.
iv. A special Joint Situation Room, under the direction of the PU and incorporating members of the Israeli and Palestinian Old City police detachments, shall facilitate liaison on all relevant matters of policing and security in the Old City.
(j) Intelligence and Security
ii. A trilateral committee composed of the two Parties and representatives of the United States shall be established to facilitate this cooperation.
8. Mount of Olives Cemetery
ii. The IVG shall monitor the implementation of this clause.
iii. This arrangement may only be terminated by the agreement of both Parties.
9. Special Cemetery Arrangements
10. The Western Wall Tunnel
(b) This arrangement may only be terminated by the agreement of both Parties.
11. Municipal Coordination
(b) The JCDC shall ensure that the coordination of infrastructure and services best serves the residents of Jerusalem, and shall promote the economic development of the city to the benefit of all. The JCDC will act to encourage cross-community dialogue and reconciliation.
(c) The JCDC shall have the
ii. A Hydro Infrastructure Committee: to handle matters relating to drinking water delivery, drainage, and wastewater collection and treatment.
iii. A Transport Committee: to coordinate relevant connectedness and compatibility of the two road systems and other issues pertaining to transport.
iv. An Environmental Committee: to deal with environmental issues affecting the quality of life in the city, including solid waste management.
v. An Economic and Development Committee: to formulate plans for economic development in areas of joint interest, including in the areas of transportation, seam line commercial cooperation, and tourism.
vi. A Police and Emergency Services Committee: to coordinate measures for the maintenance of public order and crime prevention and the provision of emergency services;
vii. An Old City Committee: to plan and closely coordinate the joint provision of the relevant municipal services, and other functions stipulated in Article 6/7.
viii. Other Committees as agreed in the JCDC.
12. Israeli Residency of
13. Transfer of authority
Article 7 - Refugees
1. Significance of the Refugee
(b) Such a resolution will also be central to stability building and development in the region.
2. UNGAR 194, UNSC Resolution
242, and the Arab Peace Initiative
(b) The Parties recognize the right of states that have hosted Palestinian refugees to remuneration.
4. Choice of Permanent Place
of Residence (PPR)
Priority in all the above shall be accorded to the Palestinian refugee population in Lebanon.
5. Free and Informed Choice
6. End of Refugee Status
7. End of Claims
8. International Role
9. Property Compensation
(b) The aggregate sum of property
compensation shall be calculated as follows:
ii. The Panel of Experts shall base its assessment on the UNCCP records, the records of the Custodian for Absentee Property, and any other records it deems relevant. The Parties shall make these records available to the Panel.
iii. The Parties shall appoint experts to advise and assist the Panel in its work.
iv. Within 6 months, the Panel shall submit its estimates to the Parties.
v. The Parties shall agree on an economic multiplier, to be applied to the estimates, to reach a fair aggregate value of the property.
(c) The aggregate value agreed to by the Parties shall constitute the Israeli "lump sum" contribution to the International Fund. No other financial claims arising from the Palestinian refugee problem may be raised against Israel.
(d) Israel's contribution shall be made in installments in accordance with Schedule X.
(e) The value of the Israeli fixed assets that shall remain intact in former settlements and transferred to the state of Palestine will be deducted from Israel's contribution to the International Fund. An estimation of this value shall be made by the International Fund, taking into account assessment of damage caused by the settlements.
10. Compensation for Refugeehood
(b) Funds will be disbursed to refugee communities in the former areas of UNRWA operation, and will be at their disposal for communal development and commemoration of the refugee experience. Appropriate mechanisms will be devised by the International Commission whereby the beneficiary refugee communities are empowered to determine and administer the use of this Fund.
11. The International Commission
ii. In addition to themselves, the Parties call upon the United Nations, the United States, UNRWA, the Arab host countries, the EU, Switzerland, Canada, Norway, Japan, the World Bank, the Russian Federation, and others to be the members of the Commission.
iii. The Commission shall:
iv. The Parties shall make available to the Commission all relevant documentary records and archival materials in their possession that it deems necessary for the functioning of the Commission and its organs. The Commission may request such materials from all other relevant parties and bodies, including, inter alia, UNCCP and UNRWA.
ii. The Board shall be the highest authority in the Commission and shall make the relevant policy decisions in accordance with this Agreement.
iii. The Board shall draw up the procedures governing the work of the Commission in accordance with this Agreement.
iv. The Board shall oversee the conduct of the various Committees of the Commission. The said Committees shall periodically report to the Board in accordance with procedures set forth thereby.
v. The Board shall create a Secretariat and appoint a Chair thereof. The Chair and the Secretariat shall conduct the day-to-day operation of the Commission.
(c) Specific Committees
ii. Unless otherwise specified in this Agreement, the Board shall determine the structure and procedures of the Committees.
iii. The Parties may make submissions to the Committees as deemed necessary.
iv. The Committees shall establish mechanisms for resolution of disputes arising from the interpretation or implementation of the provisions of this Agreement relating to refugees.
v. The Committees shall function in accordance with this Agreement, and shall render binding decisions accordingly.
vi. Refugees shall have the right to appeal decisions affecting them according to mechanisms established by this Agreement and detailed in Annex X.
(d) Status-determination Committee:
ii. UNRWA registration shall be considered as rebuttable presumption (prima facie proof) of refugee status.
(e) Compensation Committee:
ii. The Committee shall disburse
compensation for individual property pursuant to the following
iii. Annex X shall elaborate the details of the above including, but not limited to, evidentiary issues and the use of UNCCP, "Custodian for Absentees' Property", and UNRWA records, along with any other relevant records.
(f) Host State Remuneration
(g) Permanent Place of Residence
Committee (PPR Committee):
ii. Assist the applicants in making an informed choice regarding PPR options.
iii. Receive applications from refugees regarding PPR. The applicants must indicate a number of preferences in accordance with article 7/4 above. The applications shall be received no later than two years after the start of the International Commission's operations. Refugees who do not submit such applications within the two-year period shall lose their refugee status.
iv. Determine, in accordance with sub-Article (a) above, the PPR of the applicants, taking into account individual preferences and maintenance of family unity. Applicants who do not avail themselves of the Committee's PPR determination shall lose their refugee status.
v. Provide the applicants with the appropriate technical and legal assistance.
vi. The PPR of Palestinian refugees shall be realized within 5 years of the start of the International Commission's operations.
(h) Refugeehood Fund Committee
(i) Rehabilitation and Development
12. The International Fund
(b) The structure, composition and operation of the Fund are set forth in Annex X.
(b) UNRWA should cease to exist five years after the start of the Commission's operations. The Commission shall draw up a plan for the phasing out of UNRWA and shall facilitate the transfer of UNRWA functions to host states.
14. Reconciliation Programs
(b) The Parties shall encourage and facilitate exchanges in order to disseminate a richer appreciation of these respective narratives, in the fields of formal and informal education, by providing conditions for direct contacts between schools, educational institutions and civil society.
(c) The Parties may consider cross-community cultural programs in order to promote the goals of conciliation in relation to their respective histories.
(d) These programs may include developing appropriate ways of commemorating those villages and communities that existed prior to 1949.
1. The Parties shall establish an Israeli-Palestinian Cooperation Committee immediately upon the entry into force of this agreement. The IPCC shall be a ministerial-level body with ministerial-level Co-Chairs.
2. The IPCC shall develop and assist in the implementation of policies for cooperation in areas of common interest including, but not limited to, infrastructure needs, sustainable development and environmental issues, cross-border municipal cooperation, border area industrial parks, exchange programs, human resource development, sports and youth, science, agriculture and culture.
3. The IPCC shall strive to broaden the spheres and scope of cooperation between the Parties.
Article 9 - Designated Road Use Arrangements
1. The following arrangements for Israeli civilian use will apply to the designated roads in Palestine as detailed in Map X (Road 443, Jerusalem to Tiberias via Jordan Valley, and Jerusalem -Ein Gedi).
2. These arrangements shall not prejudice Palestinian jurisdiction over these roads, including PSF patrols.
3. The procedures for designated road use arrangements will be further detailed in Annex X.
4. Israelis may be granted permits for use of designated roads. Proof of authorization may be presented at entry points to the designated roads. The sides will review options for establishing a road use system based on smart card technology.
5. The designated roads will be patrolled by the MF at all times. The MF will establish with the states of Israel and Palestine agreed arrangements for cooperation in emergency medical evacuation of Israelis.
6. In the event of any incidents involving Israeli citizens and requiring criminal or legal proceedings, there will be full cooperation between the Israeli and Palestinian authorities according to arrangements to be agreed upon as part of the legal cooperation between the two states. The Parties may call on the IVG to assist in this respect.
7. Israelis shall not use the designated roads as a means of entering Palestine without the relevant documentation and authorization.
8. In the event of regional peace, arrangements for Palestinian civilian use of designated roads in Israel shall be agreed and come into effect.
Article 10 - Sites of Religious Significance
1. The Parties shall establish special arrangements to guarantee access to agreed sites of religious significance, as will be detailed in Annex X. These arrangements will apply, inter alia, to the Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron and Rachel's Tomb in Bethlehem, and Nabi Samuel.
2. Access to and from the sites will be by way of designated shuttle facilities from the relevant border crossing to the sites.
3. The Parties shall agree on requirements and procedures for granting licenses to authorized private shuttle operators.
4. The shuttles and passengers will be subject to MF inspection.
5. The shuttles will be escorted on their route between the border crossing and the sites by the MF.
6. The shuttles shall be under the traffic regulations and jurisdiction of the Party in whose territory they are traveling.
7. Arrangements for access to the sites on special days and holidays are detailed in Annex X.
8. The Palestinian Tourist Police and the MF will be present at these sites.
9. The Parties shall establish a joint body for the religious administration of these sites.
10. In the event of any incidents involving Israeli citizens and requiring criminal or legal proceedings, there will be full cooperation between the Israeli and Palestinian authorities according to arrangements to be agreed upon. The Parties may call on the IVG to assist in this respect.
11. Israelis shall not use the shuttles as a means of entering Palestine without the relevant documentation and authorization.
12. The Parties shall protect and preserve the sites of religious significance listed in Annex X and shall facilitate visitation to the cemeteries listed in Annex X.
Article 11 - Border Regime
1. There shall be a border regime between the two states, with movement between them subject to the domestic legal requirements of each and to the provisions of this Agreement as detailed in Annex X.
2. Movement across the border shall only be through designated border crossings.
3. Procedures in border crossings shall be designed to facilitate strong trade and economic ties, including labor movement between the Parties.
4. Each Party shall each, in its respective territory, take the measures it deems necessary to ensure that no persons, vehicles, or goods enter the territory of the other illegally.
5. Special border arrangements in Jerusalem shall be in accordance with Article 6 above.
Article 12 - Water: still to be completed
Article 13 - Economic Relations: still to be completed
Article 14 - Legal Cooperation: still to be completed
Article 15 - Palestinian
Prisoners and Detainees
(a) Category A: all persons imprisoned prior to the start of the implementation of the Declaration of Principles on May 4, 1994, administrative detainees, and minors, as well as women, and prisoners in ill health shall be released immediately upon the entry into force of this Agreement.
(b) Category B: all persons imprisoned after May 4, 1994 and prior to the signature of this Agreement shall be released no later than eighteen months from the entry into force of this Agreement, except those specified in Category C.
(c) Category C: Exceptional cases - persons whose names are set forth in Annex X - shall be released in thirty months at the end of the full implementation of the territorial aspects of this Agreement set forth in Article 5/7/v.
Article 16 - Dispute Settlement
2. If a dispute is not settled promptly by the above, either Party may submit it to mediation and conciliation by the IVG mechanism in accordance with Article 3.
3. Disputes which cannot be settled by bilateral negotiation and/or the IVG mechanism shall be settled by a mechanism of conciliation to be agreed upon by the Parties.
4. Disputes which have not been resolved by the above may be submitted by either Party to an arbitration panel. Each Party shall nominate one member of the three-member arbitration panel. The Parties shall select a third arbiter from the agreed list of arbiters set forth in Annex X either by consensus or, in the case of disagreement, by rotation.
Article 17 - Final Clauses
The English version of this text will be considered authoritative.
The ''Geneva Accord''
The Geneva Accords are an effort to formulate a complete final-status agreement, without Sharon's long-term interim agreements. The agreement is presented as a draft for the final phase of the “road map" peace plan, which is due to end in 2005.
The 50-page draft peace agreement was completed over the weekend in neighboring Jordan by the two delegations, which included current legislators and former cabinet members on both sides. The proposal offers highly specific solutions and calls for major compromises on the most sensitive issues that have torpedoed previous peace efforts, ranging from the status of Palestinian refugees to Israeli settlements.
No official document has yet been made public to list the agreements reached between Israeli left-wing politicians and senior Palestinian representatives. Israeli and Palestinian negotiators hope to sign the "Geneva Accord" in the Swiss city on November 4, 2003, the eighth anniversary of the assassination of Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin. The following are concessions agreed to by the sides, according to media reports.
1. Israel will agree to the establishment of a demilitarized Palestinian state and will withdraw to the 1967 borders, except for certain territorial exchanges, as described below.
2. Jerusalem will be divided, with Arab (Muslim and Christian) neighborhoods of East Jerusalem becoming part of the Palestinian state.
3. Temple Mount will be under Palestinian sovereignty, however, in light of the sanctity of the site and its religious and cultural significance to the Jewish people, there will be no archaeological digs or construction without the consent of both sides. The Mount would be transferred to the Palestinians 30 months after the agreement is signed.
4. An international force stationed permanently will supervise Jerusalem's holy sites, ensuring freedom of access for visitors of all faiths. However, Jewish prayer will not be permitted on the mount.
5. The Muslim, Armenian and Christian quarters of the Old City would be Palestinian. There would be special arrangements to allow Israelis to pass through the Armenian quarter on their way to the Jewish quarter. The entire Old City would be open: the borders between the quarters would be marked, but they would not be separated by physical barriers.
6. Most of West Bank, including the settlements of Ariel, Efrat and Har Homa, all of Gaza and the Jordan Valley will be turned over to the Palestinians. Israel's withdrawal from the territories will be completed within 30 months, during which time the settlements will be dismantled, but the Israel forces will be allowed to deploy in the Jordan Valley for an additional three years.
7. Israel will transfer to Palestinians parts of the Negev adjacent to Gaza, but not including Halutza, to the Palestinians in exchange for the parts of the West Bank it will receive, including Maale Adumim and Gush Etzion.
8. Safe passage route between Gaza and West Bank will be established.
1. Palestinians will waive "right of return" for refugees, except for a limited number of that will be allowed to settle in Israel, mainly for the purposes of reuniting families, but this will not be defined as realization of the right of return.
2. Some refugees will remain in the countries where they now live, others will be absorbed by the PA, some will be absorbed by other countries and some will receive financial compensation.
3. Western Wall and Jewish Quarter will be under Israeli sovereignty, the “holy basin" will be under international supervision.
4. Jewish neighborhoods of East Jerusalem, including Pisgat Ze'ev and Ramot as well as the West Bank suburbs of Givat Ze'ev, Ma'aleh Adumim and the historic part of Gush Etzion - but not Efrat - will remain under Israeli sovereignty. Jewish and Arab areas in East Jerusalem would be separated by physical barriers, but the two parties would consider removing them after three years.
5. The Palestinians will pledge to prevent terror and incitement and disarm all militias. Their state will be demilitarized, and border crossings will be supervised by an international, but not an Israeli, force.
6. Palestinians will collect all illegal weaponry.
7. Palestinians will recognize Israel as a Jewish state, and announce an end to their conflict with Israel.
1. Law and order in the Old City would be maintained by a special international force that would include Israeli and Palestinian policemen.
2. Visas would be needed to cross from Israeli to Palestinian Jerusalem or vice versa. Both the Israeli and the Palestinian sections of the city would be territorially contiguous, without enclaves.
3. The agreement will replace all UN resolutions and previous agreements.
Funding for the Geneva Initiative
Not only Switzerland is involved in paying for the left-wing Geneva initiative. Foreign Minister Silvan Shalom revealed at yesterday Cabinet's meeting that France and Belgium, as well, have offered to foot part of the bill. Shalom said that the Foreign Ministers of these two countries offered $7 million to Yossi Beilin, the prime mover of the agreement, for the purpose of marketing the plan in the international community.
Israel has protested via diplomatic channels against their intervention in Israel's internal matters, but will not submit a formal protest. Prime Minister Sharon told the ministers that efforts must be made against the adoption of the 'Geneva agreement' and the aid given to it by various European countries.
Swiss Foreign Ministry officials announced two weeks ago that Switzerland was participating in funding the efforts to formulate the Geneva document, though they did not disclose the amount.
The accord was formulated by Israeli politicians from the extreme left such as Yossi Beilin, Amram Mitzna and Avraham Burg, together with Yasser Abed Rabbo of the Palestinian Authority. They plan to sign the agreement with great fanfare in Jordan next week, on the eighth anniversary of Yitzchak Rabin's death.
The document has aroused strong objections from both the left and right, and in both Israel and the PA. Though the Israeli signers say that its main advantage is that the Palestinians have agreed to it, this appears to be a mis-statement. Yasser Arafat, for instance, said that the agreement does not reflect the PA's position, and senior PA official Fares Kadura, who took part in the negotiations, said that the agreement's only purpose was to cause internal squabbling in Israel. Nabil Shaath, Fatah official Hussein A-Sheikh, and others have also come out against the agreement.
The "Palestinian Return Centre" (PRC) convened a conference in London this month in support of the so-called "right of return" for Arabs who left Israel in 1948. The conferees emphasized their allegiance to the Palestinian Liberation Organization, and rejected the Geneva Agreement. In its summing-up statement, the conference "expressed its astonishment how a few persons could assign to themselves the task of compromising the right of return and confine it to return to the areas of self-rule or resettlement in Arab countries... The conference declared that the Palestinian National Authority is obliged to put an end to the initiatives of these individuals..."
In Israel, President Moshe Katzav said that the Geneva understanding "sabotages the Road Map plan and interferes with the government's efforts towards future negotiations with the PA." Tourism Minister Benny Elon said that Yossi Beilin is "cooperating with the enemy" in his attempts to advance this agreement, and Defense Minister Sha'ul Mofaz has labeled the Geneva understanding a "dangerous effort that is harmful to the security of the state." Prof. Shimon Sheetrit, a Labor Party minister in Yitzchak Rabin's government, told Arutz-7 last week that the contacts between unauthorized persons and PA officials are harmful to democracy and that the Attorney-General should take regulatory action.
The Geneva agreement stipulates that 100,000 Jews will be evicted from their homes in Yesha; that the Temple Mount and most of eastern Jerusalem will be given over to foreign control; and that Israel complete its withdrawal from all of Yesha, except for minor changes, within 30 months. In exchange, the Arabs are to agree to allow Israel to limit Arab refugees to 30,000 and others who are eligible for "family reunification."
Yossi Beilin has said many times that the full text of the agreement - a 70-page booklet - will be delivered to every household in Israel, although the funding for such a grandiose operation has not yet been revealed. Beilin, a four-time MK and former Justice Minister, resigned from the Labor Party late last year after he was relegated to a low spot on its list of Knesset candidates. He then joined Meretz, but was not elected to the Knesset.
'Geneva accord' irks Israel
By John Zarocostas
GENEVA — Israeli officials are fuming over Swiss funding for an unofficial peace agreement negotiated by Israeli liberals and moderate Palestinians in Geneva, which will debut later this month at a signing ceremony with former President Jimmy Carter.
The Israeli Foreign Ministry called in the Swiss charge d'affaires early last week to express its displeasure at the Swiss foreign minister, Micheline Calmy-Rey, for funding the project and promoting the plan in the United Nations and other diplomatic forums.
The United States, whose approval the sponsors consider key to the plan's viability, appeared more open to the scheme when a copy was presented to David Satterfield, deputy assistant secretary of state for Near East affairs.
"We will be reviewing this document and welcome the interest in advancing the cause of Middle East peace exhibited by the participants," said one U.S. official, who added that Washington remains committed to the "road map" peace plan proposed by President Bush on June 24.
That plan calls for the creation of a Palestinian state alongside Israel by 2005
The "Geneva accord," as it is being called, is far more detailed, with 50 pages of annexes, formulas and maps that tackle issues that have been deal-breakers in previous peace talks — such as the final political status of Jerusalem, Israeli settlements and the status of Palestinian refugees — including compensation for the loss of property.
"You have both sides willing to go to the end of the road. This is very significant," said Pierre Allen, dean of economic and social sciences at the University of Geneva and a member of the Swiss academic team that facilitated the secret two-year discussions between Israeli and Palestinian teams in Europe and the Middle East.
Key figures in the initiative included former Israeli Justice Minister Yossi Beilin and former Palestinian Minister of Information Yasser Abed Rabbo.
"The road map is the only game in town," said Alexis Keller, a Geneva-based academic, who also played a key role in the process but was quick to add the Geneva accord provides details on how to negotiate the third phase of the road map.
The Geneva accord is "the first time ever you have a final-status agreement" crafted by Israelis and Palestinians, Mr. Keller said.
Sources close to the initiative say that getting the Bush administration's support — and winning the confidence of Israeli public opinion — are critical if the plan is to ever go beyond an academic exercise and provide the basis for new peace talks.
"We can't afford to lose the Bush administration. The [pro-Israel] hawks are strong," said a source familiar with the behind-the-scenes diplomacy.
The plan has been roundly condemned by the government of Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, which has argued throughout the three-year uprising that the Palestinians should not be rewarded with negotiations before they get serious about halting terror attacks on Israel.
"We stress: Israel is committed to President Bush's vision for the Middle East and to the road map," Israel's ambassador to the United Nations in Geneva, Yaakov Levy, said in an interview Friday.
"Any efforts to promote alternative initiatives could be injurious to the road map," he said.
Nevertheless, international diplomatic support for the scheme has been growing ahead of the Nov. 20 signing ceremony, with backers claiming support from such foreign capitals as London, Paris, Brussels and Tokyo.
U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan said last week that "grass-roots initiatives which bring ordinary Israelis and Palestinians together help to create a vision for a common future," while stressing there is no substitute for official negotiations between the Sharon government and the Palestinian Authority.
Arab diplomatic sources say the initiative also has the tacit support of the Palestinian Authority and Palestine Liberation Organization chief Yasser Arafat.
The Geneva accord envisages the creation of a nonmilitarized Palestinian state with a strong security force, its borders based on pre-June 1967 Middle East war lines with modifications; a corridor between the West Bank and Gaza that will be under Israeli sovereignty but be permanently open; and a multinational force to oversee implementation of the accord.
The blueprint also envisions mutually recognized capitals in the area of Jerusalem under their respective sovereignty, freedom of access to sites of religious and cultural significance, and a complex formula to determine how many refugees could return to Israel proper.
New York, 5 November 2003 - Statement attributable to the Spokesman for the Secretary-General on the "Geneva Accord"
The Secretary-General welcomes the "Geneva Accord" drafted by prominent Israelis and Palestinians, which outlines comprehensive and detailed steps to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Such private initiatives, while not a substitute for official diplomatic negotiations between the Government of Israel and the Palestinian Authority, deserve praise and encouragement as courageous attempts to break the stalemate on both sides and to generate the popular support needed for peace in the Middle East.
The Secretary-General considers the "Geneva Accord" both consistent and compatible with the Quartet's Road Map, the last phase of which calls for agreement on such sensitive final status issues as Jerusalem, settlements and refugees.
It is now of paramount importance that the parties start implementing the Road Map provisions without delay.
Nov. 8, 2003
US Secretary of State Colin Powell praised the Geneva Initiative in a letter to the authors of the so-called Geneva Accord, made public Friday.
"[The Administration is] trying to send a message to Sharon, without saying so explicitly," said former US mediator Dennis Ross.
"It does reflect a deep concern," former Assistant Secretary of State Martin Indyk said, referring to the virtual halt to any active US diplomacy.
Seen as a veiled rebuke to Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, who has attacked the accord as subversive, Powell's letter came a week after Deputy US Defense Secretary Paul Wolfowitz praised another unofficial peace plan drawn up by Sari Nusseibeh, a prominent Palestinian moderate, and Ami Ayalon, former head of Israel's Shin Bet security service. "As Americans, we know there are times when great changes can extend from the grass roots," said Wolfowitz after meeting Ayalon and Nusseibeh.
"Dear Yossi and Yasser," Powell wrote, according to a copy given to The Associated Press by a Beilin aide. "The US remains committed to the president's two-state vision and to the road map, but we also believe that projects such as yours are important in helping sustain an atmosphere of hope."
State Department spokesman Richard Boucher said Friday that Powell wanted to "express appreciation" for their efforts. "The United States is always encouraged when there is discussion," he said.
Responding to questions, Boucher said the administration was not engaged in "some kind of end run around leaders in the region."
Nor, he said, did the praise undercut the road map.
Dennis Ross, the top US mediator for 12 years, said he believes Powell was trying to inspire Sharon to get started on "diplomacy of his own" by praising alternative efforts. "[Powell and Wolfowitz] are trying to create more formal efforts," he said.
Martin Indyk, a former US ambassador to Israel and a member of former President Bill Clinton's negotiating team, said he believes Powell's letter "reflects a deep concern that with nothing happening, the prospects for President Bush's vision of a two-state solution could also start to disappear."
But, he said of the letter, "it's a weak substitute for doing something serious."
With The Associated Press
Geneva Accord maps out new road to peace
A Swiss-backed peace plan for the Middle East is to be signed in Geneva on December 1, amid opposition from the Israeli government.
The Swiss foreign minister, Micheline Calmy-Rey, told swissinfo the accord was not a substitute for the “road map" but could provide a new impetus for peace.
The “Geneva Accord" was signed by a former Israeli cabinet minister, Yossi Beilin, and his Palestinian counterpart, Yasser Abed Rabbo, in Jordan on October 12, following two years of secret negotiations.
The signing ceremony in Geneva on December 1 will be a symbolic event, and comes after a campaign to promote the accord among Israelis and Palestinians.
The Israeli government is firmly opposed to the plan - the prime minister, Ariel Sharon, insists that the United States-backed “road map" is the only route to peace in the Middle East.
The accord covers many divisive issues between Israelis and Palestinians: Jerusalem, a Palestinian state, the right of return for Palestinian refugees and Jewish settlements.
swissinfo: How did this process start, and what was the motivation for Switzerland’s involvement?
Micheline Calmy-Rey: Switzerland got involved at the request of the groups concerned. We support political dialogue between personalities from civil society, both Israeli and Palestinian. And this is part of Switzerland’s commitment to peace promotion measures. We are pursuing such measures in many other countries in the world and it’s not the only country where we are going to promote peace.
swissinfo: Switzerland has been involved right from the start then in a supporting role?
M.C-R.: Yes, but Switzerland did not have any influence on the substance [of the accord]. The Swiss support was logistical and financial… because we support political dialogue, and we did not provide mediation. We didn’t make compromises - the compromises were made by the parties themselves.
swissinfo: How exactly did the facilitator’s role work, what services did Switzerland provide?
M.C-R.: Financial and logistical support - we made this political dialogue possible. And you know this commitment to peace promotion [is something] we are doing in other countries too. Sometimes this takes the form of facilitation, as in the Geneva Accord, but sometimes other means are used. For example, good offices or provision of expert services, or… well, there’s a whole list of those sorts of actions.
swissinfo: You've been very open about peace promotion on many occasions. Do you see this as a fundamental part of Swiss foreign policy, particularly bearing in mind that Switzerland is a neutral country?
M.C-R.: Switzerland’s commitment to peace promotion is an important part of our foreign policy. Because of that the groups concerned came and asked for Switzerland’s support - because we are not involved in strategic discussions in the country, because we are neutral, because our support is not provocative, if I can put it like that.
swissinfo: Do you feel Swiss neutrality is an important factor - an advantage that Switzerland has?
M.C-R.: I think it was an advantage in this case, but it’s not an exclusive advantage. Competence and credibility are advantages too, and I think if we had not had competence and credibility they would not have asked for our support.
swissinfo: You have been to Britain and the United States recently, where you were looking for support for the Geneva Accord. What sort of reaction did you get?
M.C-R.: I think the reaction has been on the whole positive. Take the example of Israel first - 39 per cent of the population, of the Israeli people, are in favour, according to a survey.
In Britain the prime minister and the foreign minister publicly welcomed this initiative. In America, some reactions were neutral ones, and others recognised the merit of this initiative [such as US Secretary of State] Colin Powell. I think this initiative has had quite positive reactions around the world.
swissinfo: How does the Swiss government view the accord? Is this a replacement for the [US-backed] road map, or something extra?
M.C-R.: It complements the road map. It answers questions that are not solved by the road map, so it could be considered a useful addition.
swissinfo: What about the Israeli government? The prime minister, Ariel Sharon, has refused even to accept a copy of the accord. What is your reaction? Is there anything you would like to say to him?
M.C-R.: It’s not my place to deliver any message. The only thing I want to underline is that this text is a kind of service given by the authors to the authorities, who may find themselves in a situation where the text might be useful to them. So it’s a service and that’s all, and that’s the only thing I want to underline.
swissinfo: Are you personally optimistic about this accord?
M.C-R.: Yes I am. You know, this text is a hope for peace. This text is a little light in the darkness, and I hope, I really hope, that it will be useful for peace.
The people who are now discussing together, who made these compromises; many of them have suffered from the conflict. Many of them have lost friends or loved ones, and it was very difficult for them to make compromises. It was very difficult to enter into that process and to go beyond the feelings one has in that situation, and to work with reason in order to find solutions. And I am very proud that Switzerland can support such a political dialogue, and I hope that this little light will be lasting.
swissinfo: What’s the next step after the signing ceremony in Geneva on December 1?
M.C-R.: The signing is a public commitment. [After that] the authors of the text will set about in explaining the text [to the Israeli and Palestinian populations], to defend the compromises they reached together, and in that way the ceremony in Geneva is not an end, it’s the beginning of the process.
swissinfo-interview: Imogen Foulkes
Jimmy Carter: Camp David to the Geneva Accord
November 24, 2003 7:50 AM
The former American president, Jimmy Carter, has offered his backing to the Geneva Accord, an unofficial peace treaty for the Palestinians and the Israelis.
Carter told swissinfo that the accord could help boost the United States-backed road map, but added that the US must rein in its perceived pro-Israeli bias.
The unofficial peace plan is backed by a number of Israeli and Palestinian personalities, and the Swiss government has offered financial and logistical support to the initiative.
But the accord, which will be launched in Geneva on December 1, has attracted severe criticism from Israel’s government and Jewish groups, as well as Palestinian factions.
Carter, who was US president from 1977 to 1981, was awarded the Nobel peace prize in 2002 for his work in mediating conflicts.
swissinfo: President Carter, why did you decide to accept Switzerland’s invitation to attend the signing of the Geneva Accord?
Jimmy Carter: The Carter Center has been informed for several years about the good work being done by the parties involved in this accord, and for the last few months, I’ve had a representative at the negotiations.
Furthermore, I’ve been very discouraged and disappointed by the lack of progress in the so-called road map process. Israelis and Palestinians have not made any movement toward peace. In particular, there is continued settlement activity.
What the Geneva Accord does envisage is quite accurately compatible with the ultimate goal of the road map and the Oslo accords of 1993.
swissinfo: Some parties have criticised the role of Switzerland as an instigator and promoter of this document. Do you believe that it is appropriate for a country such as Switzerland to get involved?
J.C.: We are very grateful to the Swiss. I note that Oslo was a major step towards peace, and that it was almost entirely done by the Norwegians without much support from the United States.
swissinfo: President Bill Clinton was also invited but has not yet accepted the Swiss invitation. No one from the Bush administration will attend the signing. In your view, would it be important that Clinton and the Bush administration attend the signing?
J.C.: Yes, I would like very much for them to attend. I am pleased that the Bush administration has not condemned the Geneva Accord. My guess is that there will be growing support for it, both in Israel and elsewhere.
swissinfo: Proponents of the Geneva Accord say that it is largely based on the proposals Clinton made to Ehud Barak and Yasser Arafat at Camp David in 2000. Is that correct?
J.C.: It’s a continuation of Camp David. Now, the proposals that were made at Camp David were unacceptable to the Palestinians.
Yasser Arafat could not have survived politically if he had accepted those proposals. They still maintained a wide array of settlements in Gaza and the West Bank.
Also, there was no tangible solution to the Jerusalem and refugee issues. But it was a base, and the Geneva Accord is a culmination of all previous accords that have been passed.
swissinfo: The authors of the Geneva accord also say that their document is a comprehensive one that deals with all the issues including refugees, settlements, and the status of Jerusalem. What is your assessment of the text of the accord itself?
J.C: Generally speaking, it seems to me that it is a positive step based on concessions on both sides. I note that the dispositions on returnees will have to be approved by the Israeli government.
It’s also a good step forward on the issue of settlements. For the first time, it is provided that settlers could stay in their homes on Palestinian land.
There’s also the removal of outlying Israeli settlements that are illegal in the first place.
swissinfo: Is the Geneva Accord the best agreement that can be achieved right now?
J.C.: It’s the best we can get at this point and it is a very difficult thing to do to make these concessions.
swissinfo: Looking at the situation on the ground, it seems like the road map, sponsored by the United States, Russia, the European Union and the United Nations, is not working. What is needed in order to get out of the current impasse?
J.C.: The Geneva Accord is quite compatible with the ultimate goal of the roadmap. The step-by-step process is what has killed the road map.
The Israeli government has not been willing to take the first steps such as dismantling settlements and that has spurred Palestinian violence. But I believe the Geneva Accord provides a picture of what can be done.
swissinfo: In Switzerland, as in other countries in western Europe, there is a widespread view that, especially since Bush entered the White House, the US favours Israel to the detriment of the Palestinians. Do you share that view?
J.C.: President Bush is the first American president, since the foundation of Israel, who has taken a position strongly biased to the Israeli side.
It has not been easy for his predecessors in the US who have been criticised every time they criticised the US policy in the Middle East or the Israeli government. What is needed is a set of balanced proposals.
Unfortunately, President Bush has almost invariably sided with Prime Minister Sharon, or when Sharon has refused to accept Washington’s proposals, Washington has, in effect, ignored what Israel did subsequently.
There have been a few weak statements from the Bush administration on settlements and the fence, but no real effort to do more.
swissinfo-interview: Marie-Christine Bonzom in Washington
Nov. 25, 2003
An initiative for the Knesset to legislate a law, similar to the US's Logan Act, to prohibit citizens from interfering in the government's foreign relations is to be expedited.
Yuli Edelstein (Likud) received permission Monday to advance a private member's bill on the subject. Edelstein and Moshe Kahlon (Likud) initiated the legislation in reaction to the Geneva Accord reached between a group of leftist politicians led by Yossi Beilin and a Palestinian Authority team headed by former information minister Yasser Abed Rabbo. The document is to be signed Monday in Geneva.
Edelstein is aiming to bring the bill for a preliminary vote next Wednesday. Under the proposed amendment to the Penal Code, a person who has contact with a foreign country without the consent of his government, and thereby interferes with its policies and influences the policies of a foreign government toward a conflict with Israel, would be subject to a three-year jail sentence or a fine.
In the US, the 200-year-old measure has gone largely unenforced.
Edelstein conceded that the bill could not be implemented retroactively against Beilin and his partners, but said that its advancement now would at least send a message. He said the bill is likely to win wide support because it is in the interest of any government in office.
The Geneva Accord is "an unprecedented case" of individuals conducting foreign policy, he said. Their actions have caused Israel "irreparable international damage," he added.
The House Committee agreed Monday to waive the 45-day waiting period for Yudelstein's bill. Kahlon did not ask for a waiver for his bill, but can raise his proposal with Edelstein's.
Justice Minister Yosef Lapid did not oppose Edelstein's request to advance the bill. The Ministerial Committee on Legislation will meet on Sunday to determine its position.