Bible Prophecy Research
Title: Road Map Documents
Submitted by: email@example.com
Road Map Documents
Israeli Statement on UN Security Council Roadmap Resolution, November 20, 2003
Security Council Adopts Resolution 1515 Endorsing Road Map, November 19, 2003
Madrid Peace Conference, October 30, 1991
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242, November 22, 1967
United Nations Security Council Resolution 338, 1973
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1397, March 12, 2002
Beirut Declaration ("Arab Initiative" of Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah endorsed by Council of League of Arab States), March 28, 2002
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194, December, 1948
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 181, November 29, 1947
S/2003/529 Road Map, May 7, 2003
Mitchell Report, May 4, 2001
Tenet Cease-Fire Plan, June 10, 2001
Zinni Paper, March 26, 2002
STATEMENT ON UN SECURITY COUNCIL ROADMAP RESOLUTION
(Communicated by the Prime Minister's Media Adviser)
Thursday, November 20, 2003
[IMRA: IMRA has asked the Prime Minister's Office if the reference to the
Ha'aretz "Unofficial Text" of the 14 clarifications constitutes
confirmation by the Prime Minister's Office of the accuracy of the text.
For some reason until now the Government has refused to release an
official text of this important document.]
In light of the United Nations Security Council resolution regarding the
roadmap, Israel would like to
reiterate the following: The Government of Israel accepted the roadmap
along with 14 clarifications that it decided upon
and this is the one and only diplomatic plan that Israel is prepared to
The peace plan known as "the roadmap", as accepted by Israel, can be
carried out only through negotiations and agreements between Israel and
the Palestinians. Judging in relation to the plan's implementation will
be in the hands of the United States. Israel will not accept any other
intervention in implementing the plan.
The State of Israel is committed to the roadmap and expects and hopes that
the Palestinians will begin to carry out their commitments, including the
cessation of terror, dismantling the terrorist organizations and carrying
out a full reform of the Palestinian administration, thus making it
possible to reach a settlement that will lead to quiet and peace for both
Israel and the Palestinians.
IMRA - Independent Media Review and Analysis
Jerusalem, May 25, 2003
Goverment meeting about the Prime Minister's
statement on the Roadmap
A. The Government of Israel, today (Sunday), May 25, 2003,
considered the Prime Minister's statement on the Roadmap,
as well as Israel's comments on its implementation. Following
its deliberations, the Government, by a majority vote, resolved:
Based on the 23 May 2003 statement of the United States
Government, in which the United States committed to fully and
seriously address Israel's comments to the Roadmap during
the implementation phase, the Prime Minister announced on
23 May 2003 that Israel has agreed to accept the steps set out
in the Roadmap.
The Government of Israel affirms the Prime Minister's
announcement, and resolves that all of Israel's comments, as
addressed in the Administration's statement, will be
implemented in full during the implementation phase of the
A list of the comments forwarded by Israel for the review of the
Administration in the United States has been attached to this
B. The Government also resolved, concerning the issue of the
refugees, as follows:
The Government of Israel today accepted the steps set out in
the Roadmap. The Government of Israel expresses its hope
that the political process that will commence, in accordance
with the 24 June 2002 speech of President Bush, will bring
security, peace and reconciliation between Israel and the
The Government of Israel further clarifies that, both during and
subsequent to the political process, the resolution of the issue
of the refugees will not include their entry into or settlement
within the State of Israel.
Jerusalem, May 23, 2003
Statement from PM Sharon's Bureau
(Communicated by the Prime Minister's Media Adviser)
Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's Bureau has, today (Friday), May
23, 2003, released the following statement:
"In view of the recent statement of the US regarding the Israeli
comments on the Roadmap, which shares the view of the
Government of Israel that these are real concerns and in view
of the US promise to address those concerns fully and
seriously in the implementation of the Roadmap to fulfill the
President's vision of June 24, 2002, we are prepared to
accept the steps set out in the Roadmap. I intend to submit this
acceptance to the Government of Israel's approval."
Statement by Secretary of State Colin L. Powell and National Security Advisor
Secretary Colin L. Powell and National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice
May 23, 2003
Released by the White House Office of the Press Secretary
The roadmap was presented to the Government of Israel with a request from the President that it respond with contributions to
this document to advance true peace. The United States Government received a response from the Government of Israel,
explaining its significant concerns about the roadmap.
The United States shares the view of the Government of Israel that these are real concerns, and will address them fully and
seriously in the implementation of the roadmap to fulfill the President's vision of June 24, 2002.
For Immediate Release
Office of the Press Secretary
June 24, 2002
President Bush Calls for New Palestinian Leadership
The Rose Garden
THE PRESIDENT: For too long, the citizens of the Middle East have lived in the midst of death and fear. The hatred of a few holds
the hopes of many hostage. The forces of extremism and terror are attempting to kill progress and peace by killing the innocent. And
this casts a dark shadow over an entire region. For the sake of all humanity, things must change in the Middle East.
It is untenable for Israeli citizens to live in terror. It is untenable for Palestinians to live in squalor and occupation. And the current
situation offers no prospect that life will improve. Israeli citizens will continue to be victimized by terrorists, and so Israel will continue
to defend herself.
In the situation the Palestinian people will grow more and more miserable. My vision is two states, living side by side in peace and
security. There is simply no way to achieve that peace until all parties fight terror. Yet, at this critical moment, if all parties will break
with the past and set out on a new path, we can overcome the darkness with the light of hope. Peace requires a new and different
Palestinian leadership, so that a Palestinian state can be born.
I call on the Palestinian people to elect new leaders, leaders not compromised by terror. I call upon them to build a practicing
democracy, based on tolerance and liberty. If the Palestinian people actively pursue these goals, America and the world will actively
support their efforts. If the Palestinian people meet these goals, they will be able to reach agreement with Israel and Egypt and
Jordan on security and other arrangements for independence.
And when the Palestinian people have new leaders, new institutions and new security arrangements with their neighbors, the United
States of America will support the creation of a Palestinian state whose borders and certain aspects of its sovereignty will be
provisional until resolved as part of a final settlement in the Middle East.
In the work ahead, we all have responsibilities. The Palestinian people are gifted and capable, and I am confident they can achieve a
new birth for their nation. A Palestinian state will never be created by terror -- it will be built through reform. And reform must be more
than cosmetic change, or veiled attempt to preserve the status quo. True reform will require entirely new political and economic
institutions, based on democracy, market economics and action against terrorism.
Today, the elected Palestinian legislature has no authority, and power is concentrated in the hands of an unaccountable few. A
Palestinian state can only serve its citizens with a new constitution which separates the powers of government. The Palestinian
parliament should have the full authority of a legislative body. Local officials and government ministers need authority of their own and
the independence to govern effectively.
The United States, along with the European Union and Arab states, will work with Palestinian leaders to create a new constitutional
framework, and a working democracy for the Palestinian people. And the United States, along with others in the international
community will help the Palestinians organize and monitor fair, multi-party local elections by the end of the year, with national
elections to follow.
Today, the Palestinian people live in economic stagnation, made worse by official corruption. A Palestinian state will require a vibrant
economy, where honest enterprise is encouraged by honest government. The United States, the international donor community and
the World Bank stand ready to work with Palestinians on a major project of economic reform and development. The United States,
the EU, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund are willing to oversee reforms in Palestinian finances, encouraging
transparency and independent auditing.
And the United States, along with our partners in the developed world, will increase our humanitarian assistance to relieve
Palestinian suffering. Today, the Palestinian people lack effective courts of law and have no means to defend and vindicate their
rights. A Palestinian state will require a system of reliable justice to punish those who prey on the innocent. The United States and
members of the international community stand ready to work with Palestinian leaders to establish finance -- establish finance and
monitor a truly independent judiciary.
Today, Palestinian authorities are encouraging, not opposing, terrorism. This is unacceptable. And the United States will not support
the establishment of a Palestinian state until its leaders engage in a sustained fight against the terrorists and dismantle their
infrastructure. This will require an externally supervised effort to rebuild and reform the Palestinian security services. The security
system must have clear lines of authority and accountability and a unified chain of command.
America is pursuing this reform along with key regional states. The world is prepared to help, yet ultimately these steps toward
statehood depend on the Palestinian people and their leaders. If they energetically take the path of reform, the rewards can come
quickly. If Palestinians embrace democracy, confront corruption and firmly reject terror, they can count on American support for the
creation of a provisional state of Palestine.
With a dedicated effort, this state could rise rapidly, as it comes to terms with Israel, Egypt and Jordan on practical issues, such as
security. The final borders, the capital and other aspects of this state's sovereignty will be negotiated between the parties, as part of
a final settlement. Arab states have offered their help in this process, and their help is needed.
I've said in the past that nations are either with us or against us in the war on terror. To be counted on the side of peace, nations
must act. Every leader actually committed to peace will end incitement to violence in official media, and publicly denounce homicide
bombings. Every nation actually committed to peace will stop the flow of money, equipment and recruits to terrorist groups seeking
the destruction of Israel -- including Hamas, Islamic Jihad, and Hezbollah. Every nation actually committed to peace must block the
shipment of Iranian supplies to these groups, and oppose regimes that promote terror, like Iraq. And Syria must choose the right
side in the war on terror by closing terrorist camps and expelling terrorist organizations.
Leaders who want to be included in the peace process must show by their deeds an undivided support for peace. And as we move
toward a peaceful solution, Arab states will be expected to build closer ties of diplomacy and commerce with Israel, leading to full
normalization of relations between Israel and the entire Arab world.
Israel also has a large stake in the success of a democratic Palestine. Permanent occupation threatens Israel's identity and
democracy. A stable, peaceful Palestinian state is necessary to achieve the security that Israel longs for. So I challenge Israel to
take concrete steps to support the emergence of a viable, credible Palestinian state.
As we make progress towards security, Israel forces need to withdraw fully to positions they held prior to September 28, 2000. And
consistent with the recommendations of the Mitchell Committee, Israeli settlement activity in the occupied territories must stop.
The Palestinian economy must be allowed to develop. As violence subsides, freedom of movement should be restored, permitting
innocent Palestinians to resume work and normal life. Palestinian legislators and officials, humanitarian and international workers,
must be allowed to go about the business of building a better future. And Israel should release frozen Palestinian revenues into
honest, accountable hands.
I've asked Secretary Powell to work intensively with Middle Eastern and international leaders to realize the vision of a Palestinian
state, focusing them on a comprehensive plan to support Palestinian reform and institution-building.
Ultimately, Israelis and Palestinians must address the core issues that divide them if there is to be a real peace, resolving all claims
and ending the conflict between them. This means that the Israeli occupation that began in 1967 will be ended through a settlement
negotiated between the parties, based on U.N. Resolutions 242 and 338, with Israeli withdrawal to secure and recognize borders.
We must also resolve questions concerning Jerusalem, the plight and future of Palestinian refugees, and a final peace between
Israel and Lebanon, and Israel and a Syria that supports peace and fights terror.
All who are familiar with the history of the Middle East realize that there may be setbacks in this process. Trained and determined
killers, as we have seen, want to stop it. Yet the Egyptian and Jordanian peace treaties with Israel remind us that with determined
and responsible leadership progress can come quickly.
As new Palestinian institutions and new leaders emerge, demonstrating real performance on security and reform, I expect Israel to
respond and work toward a final status agreement. With intensive effort by all, this agreement could be reached within three years
from now. And I and my country will actively lead toward that goal.
I can understand the deep anger and anguish of the Israeli people. You've lived too long with fear and funerals, having to avoid
markets and public transportation, and forced to put armed guards in kindergarten classrooms. The Palestinian Authority has
rejected your offer at hand, and trafficked with terrorists. You have a right to a normal life; you have a right to security; and I deeply
believe that you need a reformed, responsible Palestinian partner to achieve that security.
I can understand the deep anger and despair of the Palestinian people. For decades you've been treated as pawns in the Middle
East conflict. Your interests have been held hostage to a comprehensive peace agreement that never seems to come, as your lives
get worse year by year. You deserve democracy and the rule of law. You deserve an open society and a thriving economy. You
deserve a life of hope for your children. An end to occupation and a peaceful democratic Palestinian state may seem distant, but
America and our partners throughout the world stand ready to help, help you make them possible as soon as possible.
If liberty can blossom in the rocky soil of the West Bank and Gaza, it will inspire millions of men and women around the globe who
are equally weary of poverty and oppression, equally entitled to the benefits of democratic government.
I have a hope for the people of Muslim countries. Your commitments to morality, and learning, and tolerance led to great historical
achievements. And those values are alive in the Islamic world today. You have a rich culture, and you share the aspirations of men
and women in every culture. Prosperity and freedom and dignity are not just American hopes, or Western hopes. They are universal,
human hopes. And even in the violence and turmoil of the Middle East, America believes those hopes have the power to transform
lives and nations.
This moment is both an opportunity and a test for all parties in the Middle East: an opportunity to lay the foundations for future
peace; a test to show who is serious about peace and who is not. The choice here is stark and simple. The Bible says, "I have set
before you life and death; therefore, choose life." The time has arrived for everyone in this conflict to choose peace, and hope, and
Thank you very much.
END 4:04 P.M. EDT
PM SHARON'S 14 ROAD-MAP "RED LINES"
Yesterday's Cabinet vote in favor of the Road Map made it contingent upon
14 "comments" that Israel submitted to the Americans. The exact wording of
"The Government of Israel… resolves that all of Israel's comments, as
addressed in the [Bush] Administration's statement, will be implemented in
full during the implementation phase of the Road Map."
Emphasizing the importance of these 14 reservations, the Prime Minister
called them "red lines beyond which we cannot and will not
withdraw." Despite this, he has yet to publicize them - thus making it
difficult for the public to ascertain whether or not he will stick to this
Public Security Minister Uzi Landau, who led the fight against the Road Map
yesterday, told Arutz-7's Haggai Seri today, "I would hope that no
ministers resign at this point; we must continue to struggle... We still
have a big fight ahead of us to ensure that our 14 reservations are
implemented, and we can't abandon this battlefield…"
As a public service, Arutz-7 publishes the essence of the 14 reservations
below, as received from, and first publicized by, IMRA (www.imra.org.il):
1) There must be no terrorism during the process. The Palestinians will
dismantle the existing security organizations and will form new
organizations to combat terror, violence and incitement (incitement must
cease immediately and the Palestinian Authority must educate for peace).
In the first phase of the plan and as a condition for progress to the
second phase, the Palestinians will complete the dismantling of terrorist
organizations (Hamas, Islamic Jihad, the Popular Front, the Democratic
Front, Al-Aqsa Brigades and others) and their infrastructure, collect all
illegal weapons and transfer them to a third party, cease weapons smuggling
and weapons production inside the Palestinian Authority, activate the full
prevention apparatus and cease incitement. The security plans to be
implemented are the Tenet and Zinni plans. [As in the other mutual
frameworks, the Roadmap will not state that Israel must cease violence and
incitement against the Palestinians].
2) Full performance will be a condition for progress between phases and for
progress within phases. The first condition for progress will be the
complete cessation of terror, violence and incitement. Progress between
phases will come only following the full implementation of the preceding
phase. Attention will be paid not to timelines, but to performance
benchmarks (timelines will serve only as reference points).
3) The emergence of a new and different leadership in the Palestinian
Authority within the framework of governmental reform; this is a condition
for progress to the second phase of the plan. New elections for the
Palestinian Legislative Council.
4) The Monitoring mechanism will be under American management.
5) The character of the provisional PA state will be determined through
negotiations between the Palestinian Authority and Israel. The provisional
state will have provisional borders and certain aspects of sovereignty. It
will be fully demilitarized, will have only police and internal security
forces of limited scope and armaments, and will not have authority to
undertake defense alliances or military cooperation. Israel will control
the entry and exit of all persons and cargo, as well as of its air space
and electromagnetic spectrum.
6) Declared references must be made to Israel's right to exist as a Jewish
state and to the waiver of any right of return for Palestinian refugees to
the State of Israel.
7) The end of the process will lead to the end of all claims, and not only
the end of the conflict.
8) The future settlement will be reached through agreement and direct
negotiations between the two parties, in accordance with the vision
outlined by President Bush in his 24 June address.
9) There will be no involvement with issues pertaining to the final
settlement. Among issues not to be discussed: settlement in Judea, Samaria
and Gaza (excluding a settlement freeze and illegal outposts), the status
of the Palestinian Authority and its institutions in Jerusalem, and all
other matters whose substance relates to the final settlement.
10) The removal of references to UN Resolution 1397, the Saudi Initiative
and the Arab Initiative adopted in Beirut. A settlement based upon the
Roadmap will be an autonomous settlement that is valid on its own. The only
possible reference should be to Resolutions 242 and 338, and then only as
an outline for the conduct of future negotiations on a permanent settlement.
11) Promotion of the reform process in the Palestinian Authority: a
transitional Palestinian constitution will be composed, a Palestinian legal
infrastructure will be constructed and cooperation with Israel in this
field will be renewed. In the economic sphere: international efforts to
rehabilitate the Palestinian economy will continue. In the financial
sphere: the American-Israeli-Palestinian agreement will be implemented in
full as a condition for the continued transfer of tax revenues.
12) The deployment of IDF forces along the September 2000 lines will be
subject to the absolute quiet noted above, and will be carried out in
keeping with the new circumstances and needs.
13) Subject to security conditions, Israel will work to restore Palestinian
life to normal: promote an improved economic situation, cultivation of
commercial connections, encouragement and assistance for the activities of
recognized humanitarian agencies. No reference will be made to the
Bertini Report as a binding source document within the framework of the
14) Arab states will assist the process through the condemnation of
terrorist activity. No link will be established between the Palestinian
track and other tracks (Syrian-Lebanese).
Arutz Sheva News Service
Monday, May 26, 2003 / Iyar 24, 5763
4862nd Meeting (PM)
SECURITY COUNCIL ADOPTS RESOLUTION ENDORSING ROAD MAP LEADING TOWARDS TWO-STATE
RESOLUTION OF ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN CONFLICT
The Security Council this afternoon endorsed the Middle East Quartet's Road Map towards a permanent,
two-State solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
By its unanimous adoption of resolution 1515 (2003), the Council called on the parties to fulfil their obligations
under the plan in cooperation with the Quartet.
In its preambular section, the text also reiterated the Council's demand for an immediate cessation of all acts
of violence, including all acts of terrorism, provocation, incitement and destruction. It emphasized that a just and
lasting peace should take into account the Israeli-Syrian and Israeli-Lebanese tracks, as well as the Israeli-Palestinian
[On 20 December 2002, the "Quartet" (Russian Federation, United States, European Union, United Nations)
reached agreement on the text of the Road Map with the goal of resolving the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and ending the
occupation that began in 1967. That goal was to be achieved on the basis of the 1991 Madrid peace conference, the
principle of land for peace, Council resolutions 242 (1967), 338 (1973) and 1397 (2002), agreements reached previously
by the parties, and the "Arab Initiative" of Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah endorsed by the Council of the League of Arab
States on 28 March 2002. The performance-based and goal-driven Road Map presented clear phases, time lines,
target dates and benchmarks aimed at the progression by the two parties through reciprocal steps in the political,
security, economic, humanitarian and institution-building fields, under the auspices of the Quartet. The Road Map was
officially submitted to the parties on 30 April 2003.]
The meeting began at 12:20 p.m. and adjourned at 12:25 p.m.
Following is the full text of Council resolution 1515 (2003):
"The Security Council,
"Recalling all its previous relevant resolutions, in particular resolutions 242 (1967), 338 (1973), 1397 (2002) and
the Madrid principles,
"Expressing its grave concern at the continuation of the tragic and violent events in the Middle East,
"Reiterating the demand for an immediate cessation of all acts of violence, including all acts of terrorism,
provocation, incitement and destruction,
"Reaffirming its vision of a region where two States, Israel and Palestine, live side by side within secure and
"Emphasizing the need to achieve a comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East, including the
Israeli-Syrian and Israeli-Lebanese tracks,
"Welcoming and encouraging the diplomatic efforts of the international Quartet and others,
"1. Endorses the Quartet Performance-based Roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict (S/2003/529);
"2. Calls on the parties to fulfil their obligations under the Roadmap in cooperation with the Quartet and to
achieve the vision of two States living side by side in peace and security;
"3. Decides to remain seized of the matter."
* *** *
Madrid Peace Conference
October 30, 1991
Toward the end of the 80s, the US prepared a fresh peace initiative, that was to culminate in an in international multilateral conference. The Israelis were not interested in such a conference because they felt that they would get better terms when negotiating with individual arab countries. However, US Secretary of State James Baker made eight trips to the region in the eight months following the Gulf War. The Madrid Invitation, inviting Israel, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan and the Palestinians to the conference represents the result. The invitation, an outcome of compromises by all sides, details the structure of the Madrid process:
* An opening conference having no power to impose solutions + bilateral talks with the Arab states bordering Israel
* Talks with the Palestinians on 5-year interim self-rule, to be followed by talks on the permanent status
* Multilateral talks on key regional issues, such as refugees.
The program regarding the Palestinians seems to echo exactly the earlier proposal of the Shamir government in 1989. The conference ultimately made little progress, but after the Rabin government came to power in 1992, Israelis and Palestinians opened an independent line of negotiations. The subsequent Oslo agreements in fact opened the way for peace with Jordan.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 242
NOVEMBER 22, 1967
The Security Council,
Expressing its continuing concern with the grave situation in the Middle East,
Emphasizing the inadmissibility of the acquisition of territory by war and the need to work for a just
and lasting peace in which every State in the area can live in security,
Emphasizing further that all Member States in their acceptance of the Charter of the United Nations
have undertaken a commitment to act in accordance with Article 2 of the Charter,
Affirms that the fulfillment of Charter principles requires the establishment of a just and lasting
peace in the Middle East which should include the application of both the following principles:
Withdrawal of Israeli armed forces from territories occupied in the recent conflict;
Termination of all claims or states of belligerency and respect for and acknowledgement of the
sovereignty, territorial integrity and political independence of every State in the area and their right to
live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free from threats or acts of force;
Affirms further the necessity
For guaranteeing freedom of navigation through international waterways in the area;
For achieving a just settlement of the refugee problem;
For guaranteeing the territorial inviolability and political independence of every State in the area,
through measures including the establishment of demilitarized zones;
Requests the Secretary General to designate a Special Representative to proceed to the Middle East
to establish and maintain contacts with the States concerned in order to promote agreement and assist
efforts to achieve a peaceful and accepted settlement in accordance with the provisions and principles
in this resolution;
Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council on the progress of the efforts of
the Special Representative as soon as possible.
United Nations Security Council Resolution 338
The Security Council,
Calls upon all parties to present fighting to cease all firing and terminate all military activity
immediately, no later than 12 hours after the moment of the adoption of this decision, in the positions
after the moment of the adoption of this decision, in the positions they now occupy; Calls upon all
parties concerned to start immediately after the cease-fire the implementation of Security Council
Resolution 242 (1967) in all of its parts;
Decides that, immediately and concurrently with the cease-fire, negotiations start between the
parties concerned under appropriate auspices aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the
U.N. Security Council Resolution 1397
March 12, 2002
The Security Council,
Recalling all its previous relevant resolutions, in particular
resolutions 242 (1967) and 338 (1973),
Affirming a vision of a region where two States, Israel and
Palestine, live side by side within secure and recognized
Expressing its grave concern at the continuation of the tragic
and violent events that have taken place since September
2000, especially the recent attacks and the increased number
Stressing the need for all concerned to ensure the safety of
Stressing also the need to respect the universally accepted
norms of international humanitarian law,
Welcoming and encouraging the diplomatic efforts of special
envoys from the United States of America, the Russian
Federation, the European Union and the United Nations
Special Coordinator and others to bring about a
comprehensive, just and lasting peace in the Middle East,
Welcoming the contribution of Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah,
1. Demands immediate cessation of all acts of violence,
including all acts of terror, provocation, incitement and
2. Calls upon the Israeli and Palestinian sides and their
leaders to cooperate in the implementation of the Tenet
work plan and Mitchell Report recommendations with the
aim of resuming negotiations on a political settlement;
3. Expresses support for the efforts of the
Secretary-General and others to assist the parties to halt
the violence and to resume the peace process;
4. Decides to remain seized of the matter.
Arab Summit Endorses Crown Prince Abdullah's Mideast Peace Initiative
Arab leaders attending the 14th Summit of the League of Arab States in Beirut,
Lebanon, on March 28 endorsed the peace initiative presented by Deputy Prime
Minister and Commander of the National Guard Crown Prince Abdullah bin Abdulaziz, and
declared that it is now an Arab initiative to be known as the "Beirut Declaration".
Crown Prince Abdullah submitted his initiative to the summit on March 27, proposing
that the league present to the United Nations Security Council an offer to Israel for
normal relations with all Arab states in exchange for full withdrawal from Arab
territories, recognition of an independent State of Palestine with East Jerusalem as its
capital, and the return of Palestinian refugees. In his statement to the summit, Crown
Prince Abdullah appealed to all friendly countries throughout the world to support this
proposal, which seeks to remove the danger of destructive wars and establish peace
for all the inhabitants of the region, without exception.
During their two-day deliberations, the Arab leaders reviewed the serious regional and
international developments that have led to perilous repercussions and dire challenges
for the Arab community, notably those pertaining to the occupied Palestinian territories
and the destructive war launched by Israel under the pretext of fighting terrorism,
exploiting the tragic incidents of September 11 in the United States.
The summit issued a communiqué emphasizing that peace in the Middle East will not be
successful if it is not just and comprehensive in line with UN Security Council
resolutions 242, 338 and 425, and the principle of land for peace. It also stressed the
unity of the Syrian and Lebanese tracks and their integral linkage with the Palestinian
track for the realization of the Arab goals of a comprehensive solution.
The communiqué called on the Israeli government and all Israeli citizens to accept the
peace initiative, now known as the Beirut Declaration, in order to preserve a chance
for peace and to halt bloodshed, enable Arab countries and Israel to live side by side in
peace and to provide future generations with a secure future filled with prosperity and
stability. It urged all the countries and international organizations to support the
The communiqué expressed solidarity with Lebanon for full liberation of its territories
and for its development and reconstruction, demanding the immediate release of all
Lebanese detained in Israeli jails and condemning the repeated Israeli aggression
against Lebanon's sovereignty, notably the violation of its airspace and territorial
waters, attributing to Israel full responsibility for the serious consequences of its
provocations. The Arab leaders stressed their solidarity with Syria as well as Lebanon
against Israel's aggressive threats that undermine the security and stability in the
region, considering any attack on the two countries as an act of aggression against all
The Arab leaders welcomed statements by Iraq to respect the independence,
sovereignty, security and territorial integrity of Kuwait in a way that leads to
avoidance of all that can cause the reoccurrence of the events of 1990.
They condemned international terrorism and the terrorist attacks on the United States
on September 11, 2001, and condemned its exploitation by the Israeli government as a
pretext to launch a destructive and aggressive war against the Palestinian people.
They stressed the distinction between international terrorism and the legitimate right
of peoples to resist foreign occupation.
Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia
March 28, 2002
THE BEIRUT DECLARATION
The Council of the League of Arab States at the Summit Level, at its 14th
- Reaffirming the resolution taken in June 1996 at the Cairo
extraordinary Arab Summit that a just and comprehensive peace in the
Middle East is the strategic option of the Arab countries, to be
achieved in accordance with international legality, and which would
require a comparable commitment on the part of the Israeli
- Having listened to the statement made by His Royal Highness Prince
Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz, the Crown Prince of the Kingdom of Saudi
Arabia, in which His Highness presented his initiative, calling for full
Israeli withdrawal from all the Arab territories occupied since June 1967,
in implementation of Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338,
reaffirmed by the Madrid Conference of 1991 and the land for peace
principle; and for Israel's acceptance of an independent Palestinian
State, with East Jerusalem as its capital, in return for the
establishment of normal relations in the context of a comprehensive
peace with Israel;
- Emanating from the conviction of the Arab countries that a military
solution to the conflict will not achieve peace or provide security for
the parties, the Council:
1. Requests Israel to reconsider its policies and declare that a just peace
is its strategic option as well.
2. Further calls upon Israel to affirm:
a. Full Israeli withdrawal from all the territories occupied since
1967, including the Syrian Golan Heights to the lines of June 4,
1967, as well as the remaining occupied Lebanese territories in
the south of Lebanon.
b. Achievement of a just solution to the Palestinian Refugee
problem to be agreed upon in accordance with UN General
Assembly Resolution 194.
c. The acceptance of the establishment of a Sovereign
Independent Palestinian State on the Palestinian territories
occupied since the 4th of June 1967 in the West Bank and Gaza
strip, with East Jerusalem as its capital.
3. Consequently, the Arab Countries affirm the following:
a. Consider the Arab-Israeli conflict ended, and enter into a
peace agreement with Israel, and provide security for all the
states of the region.
b. Establish normal relations with Israel in the context of this
4. Assures the rejection of all forms of Palestinian patriation which conflict
with the special circumstances of the Arab host countries.
5. Calls upon the Government of Israel and all Israelis to accept this
initiative in order to safeguard the prospects for peace and stop the
further shedding of blood, enabling the Arab countries and Israel to live in
peace and good neighborliness and provide future generations with
security, stability, and prosperity.
6. Invites the international community and all countries and organizations
to support this initiative.
7. Requests the Chairman of the Summit to form a special committee
composed of some of its concerned member states and the Secretary
General of the League of Arab States to pursue the necessary contacts to
gain support for this initiative at all levels, particularly from the United
Nations, the Security Council, the United States of America, the Russian
Federation, the Muslim States and the European Union.
- end -
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194
The third session of the UN General Assembly refused to
accept any decision altering the Partition Resolution 181 of
the preceding year, nor did it decide on any means of
implementation. Instead, it decided to set up a UN
Conciliation Commission, reiterated the decision on
internationalization of Jerusalem, and presented several
principles on the question of refugees. It is in this context that
Resolution 194 is still evoked today by various Arab parties.
United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 (III)
PROGRESS REPORT OF THE UNITED NATIONS
CREATION OF A CONCILIATION COMMISSION
Resolution Adopted by the General Assembly on 11
(186th Plenary Meeting)
THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY,
HAVING CONSIDERED FURTHER the situation in
1. EXPRESSES its deep appreciation of the progress
achieved through the good offices of the late United
Nations Mediator in promoting a peaceful adjustment of
the future situation of Palestine, for which cause he
sacrificed his life; and
EXTENDS its thanks to the Acting Mediator and his staff
for their continued efforts and devotion to duty in
2. ESTABLISHES a Conciliation Commission consisting
of three States Members of the United Nations which
shall have the following functions:
(a) To assume, in so far as it considers necessary in
existing circumstances, the functions given to the United
Nations Mediator on Palestine by the resolution of the
General Assembly of 14 May 1948;
(b) To carry out the specific functions and directives
given to it by the present resolution and such additional
functions and directives as may be given to it by the
General Assembly or by the Security Council;
(c) To undertake, upon the request of the Security
Council, any of the functions now assigned to the United
Nations Mediator on Palestine or to the United Nations
Truce Commission by resolutions of the Security
Council; upon such request to the Conciliation
Commission by the Security Council with respect to all
the remaining functions of the United Nations Mediator
on Palestine under Security Council resolutions, the
office of the Mediator shall be terminated;
3. DECIDES that a Committee of the Assembly,
consisting of China, France, the Union of Soviet Socialist
Republics, the United Kingdom and the United States of
America, shall present, before the end of the first part of
the present session of the General Assembly, for the
approval of the Assembly a proposal concerning the
names of the three States which will constitute the
4. REQUESTS the Commission to begin its functions at
once, with a view to the establishment of contact
between the parties themselves and the Commission at
the earliest possible date;
5. CALLS UPON the Governments and authorities
concerned to extend the scope of the negotiations
provided for in the Security Council's resolution of 16
November 1948 and to seek agreement by negotiations
conducted either with the Conciliation Commission or
directly with a view to the final settlement of all questions
outstanding between them;
6. INSTRUCTS the Conciliation Commission to take
steps to assist the Governments and authorities
concerned to achieve a final settlement of all questions
outstanding between them;
7. RESOLVES that the Holy Places - including Nazareth -,
religious buildings and sites in Palestine should be
protected and free access to them assured, in
accordance with existing rights and historical practice;
that arrangements to this end should be under effective
United Nations supervision; that the United Nations
Conciliation Commission, in presenting to the fourth
regular session of the General Assembly its detailed
proposal for a permanent international regime for the
territory of Jerusalem, should include recommendations
concerning the Holy Places in that territory; that with
regard to the Holy Places in the rest of Palestine the
Commission should call upon the political authorities of
the areas concerned to give appropriate formal
guarantees as to the protection of the Holy Places and
access to them; and that these undertakings should be
presented to the General Assembly for approval;
8. RESOLVES that, in view of its association with three
world religions, the Jerusalem area, including the
present municipality of Jerusalem plus the surrounding
villages and towns, the most Eastern of which shall be
Avu Dis; the most Southern, Bethlehem; the most
Western, Ein Karim (including also the built-up area of
Motsa); and the most Northern Shufat, should be
accorded special and separate treatment from the rest of
Palestine and should be placed under effective United
REQUESTS the Security Council to take further steps to
ensure the demilitarization of Jerusalem at the earliest
INSTRUCTS the Conciliation Commission to present to
the fourth regular session of the General Assembly
detailed proposals for a permanent international regime
for the Jerusalem area which will provide for the
maximum local autonomy for distinctive groups
consistent with the special international status of the
The Conciliation Commission is authorized to appoint a
United Nations representatives who shall cooperate with
the local authorities with respect to the interim
administration of the Jerusalem area;
9. RESOLVES that, pending agreement on more detailed
arrangements among the Governments and authorities
concerned, the freest possible access to Jerusalem by
road, rail or air should be accorded to all inhabitants of
INSTRUCTS the Conciliation Commission to report
immediately to the Security Council, for appropriate
action by that organ, any attempt by any party to impede
10. INSTRUCTS the Conciliation Commission to seek
arrangements among the Governments and authorities
concerned which will facilitate the economic
development of the area, including arrangements for
access to ports and airfields and the use of
transportation and communication facilities;
11. RESOLVES that the refugees wishing to return to
their homes and live at peace with their neighbours
should be permitted to do so at the earliest practicable
date, and that compensation should be paid for the
property of those choosing not to return and for loss of
or damage to property which, under principles of
international law or in equity, should be made good by
the Governments or authorities responsible;
INSTRUCTS the Conciliation Commission to facilitate the
repatriation, resettlement and economic and social
rehabilitation of the refugees and the payment of
compensation, and to maintain close relations with the
Director of the United Nations Relief for Palestine
Refugees and, through him, with the appropriate organs
and agencies of the United Nations;
12. AUTHORIZES the Conciliation Commission to
appoint such subsidiary bodies and to employ such
technical experts, acting under its authority, as it may
find necessary for the effective discharge of its functions
and responsibilities under the present resolution;
The Conciliation Commission will have its official
headquarters at Jerusalem. The authorities responsible
for maintaining order in Jerusalem will be responsible for
taking all measures necessary to ensure the security of
the Commission. The Secretary-General will provide a
limited number of guards for the protection of the staff
and premises of the Commission;
13. INSTRUCTS the Conciliation Commission to render
progress reports periodically to the Secretary-General
for transmission to the Security Council and to the
Members of the United Nations;
14. CALLS UPON all Governments and authorities
concerned to cooperate with the Conciliation
Commission and to take all possible steps to assist in
the implementation of the present resolution;
15. REQUESTS the Security-General to provide the
necessary staff and facilities and to make appropriate
arrangements to provide the necessary funds required
in carrying out the terms of the present resolution.
UN General Assembly Resolution 181
November 29, 1947
United Nations General
Assembly Resolution 181 called
for the partition of the
British-ruled Palestine Mandate
into a Jewish state and an Arab
state. It was approved on
November 29, 1947 with 33
votes in favor, 13 against, 10
abstentions and one absent (see
list at end of document).
The resolution was accepted by
the Jews in Palestine, yet
rejected by the Arabs in
Palestine and the Arab states.
The General Assembly,
Having met in special session at the request of the mandatory
Power to constitute and instruct a Special Committee to
prepare for the consideration of the question of the future
Government of Palestine at the second regular session;
Having constituted a Special Committee and instructed it to
investigate all questions and issues relevant to the problem of
Palestine, and to prepare proposals for the solution of the
Having received and examined the report of the Special
Committee (document A/364)(1) including a number of
unanimous recommendations and a plan of partition with
economic union approved by the majority of the Special
Considers that the present situation in Palestine is one which
is likely to impair the general welfare and friendly relations
Takes note of the declaration by the mandatory Power that it
plans to complete its evacuation of Palestine by l August 1948;
Recommends to the United Kingdom, as the mandatory
Power for Palestine, and to all other Members of the United
Nations the adoption and implementation, with regard to the
future Government of Palestine, of the Plan of Partition with
Economic Union set out below;
a.The Security Council take the necessary measures as
provided for in the plan for its implementation;
b.The Security Council consider, if circumstances during
the transitional period require such consideration,
whether the situation in Palestine constitutes a threat to
the peace. If it decides that such a threat exists, and in
order to maintain international peace and security, the
Security Council should supplement the authorization of
the General Assembly by taking measures, under
Articles 39 and 41 of the Charter, to empower the United
Nations Commission, as provided in this resolution, to
exercise in Palestine the functions which are assigned to
it by this resolution;
c.The Security Council determine as a threat to the peace,
breach of the peace or act of aggression, in accordance
with Article 39 of the Charter, any attempt to alter by
force the settlement envisaged by this resolution;
d.The Trusteeship Council be informed of the
responsibilities envisaged for it in this plan;
Calls upon the inhabitants of Palestine to take such steps as
may be necessary on their part to put this plan into effect;
Appeals to all Governments and all peoples to refrain from
taking any action which might hamper or delay the carrying out
of these recommendations, and
Authorizes the Secretary-General to reimburse travel and
subsistence expenses of the members of the Commission
referred to in Part 1, Section B, Paragraph I below, on such
basis and in such form as he may determine most appropriate
in the circumstances, and to provide the Commission with the
necessary staff to assist in carrying out the functions assigned
to the Commission by the General Assembly.*
The General Assembly,
Authorizes the Secretary-General to draw from the Working
Capital Fund a sum not to exceed 2,000,000 dollars for the
purposes set forth in the last paragraph of the resolution on the
future government of Palestine.
PLAN OF PARTITION WITH ECONOMIC UNION
Part I. - Future Constitution and Government of Palestine
A. TERMINATION OF MANDATE, PARTITION AND
1.The Mandate for Palestine shall terminate as soon as
possible but in any case not later than 1 August 1948.
2.The armed forces of the mandatory Power shall be
progressively withdrawn from Palestine, the withdrawal
to be completed as soon as possible but in any case not
later than 1 August 1948.
The mandatory Power shall advise the Commission, as
far in advance as possible, of its intention to terminate
the mandate and to evacuate each area. The mandatory
Power shall use its best endeavours to ensure that an
area situated in the territory of the Jewish State,
including a seaport and hinterland adequate to provide
facilities for a substantial immigration, shall be
evacuated at the earliest possible date and in any event
not later than 1 February 1948.
3.Independent Arab and Jewish States and the Special
International Regime for the City of Jerusalem, set forth
in Part III of this Plan, shall come into existence in
Palestine two months after the evacuation of the armed
forces of the mandatory Power has been completed but
in any case not later than 1 October 1948. The
boundaries of the Arab State, the Jewish State, and the
City of Jerusalem shall be as described in Parts II and III
4.The period between the adoption by the General
Assembly of its recommendation on the question of
Palestine and the establishment of the independence of
the Arab and Jewish States shall be a transitional
B. STEPS PREPARATORY TO INDEPENDENCE
1.A Commission shall be set up consisting of one
representative of each of five Member States. The
Members represented on the Commission shall be
elected by the General Assembly on as broad a basis,
geographically and otherwise, as possible.
2.The administration of Palestine shall, as the mandatory
Power withdraws its armed forces, be progressively
turned over to the Commission, which shall act in
conformity with the recommendations of the General
Assembly, under the guidance of the Security Council.
The mandatory Power shall to the fullest possible extent
coordinate its plans for withdrawal with the plans of the
Commission to take over and administer areas which
have been evacuated.
In the discharge of this administrative responsibility the
Commission shall have authority to issue necessary
regulations and take other measures as required.
The mandatory Power shall not take any action to
prevent, obstruct or delay the implementation by the
Commission of the measures recommended by the
3.On its arrival in Palestine the Commission shall proceed
to carry out measures for the establishment of the
frontiers of the Arab and Jewish States and the City of
Jerusalem in accordance with the general lines of the
recommendations of the General Assembly on the
partition of Palestine. Nevertheless, the boundaries as
described in Part II of this Plan are to be modified in
such a way that village areas as a rule will not be divided
by state boundaries unless pressing reasons make that
4.The Commission, after consultation with the democratic
parties and other public organizations of the Arab and
Jewish States, shall select and establish in each State
as rapidly as possible a Provisional Council of
Government. The activities of both the Arab and Jewish
Provisional Councils of Government shall be carried out
under the general direction of the Commission.
If by 1 April 1948 a Provisional Council of Government
cannot be selected for either of the States, or, if
selected, cannot carry out its functions, the Commission
shall communicate that fact to the Security Council for
such action with respect to that State as the Security
Council may deem proper, and to the Secretary-General
for communication to the Members of the United Nations.
5.Subject to the provisions of these recommendations,
during the transitional period the Provisional Councils of
Government, acting under the Commission, shall have
full authority in the areas under their control including
authority over matters of immigration and land regulation.
6.The Provisional Council of Government of each State,
acting under the Commission, shall progressively
receive from the Commission full responsibility for the
administration of that State in the period between the
termination of the Mandate and the establishment of the
7.The Commission shall instruct the Provisional Councils
of Government of both the Arab and Jewish States, after
their formation, to proceed to the establishment of
administrative organs of government, central and local.
8.The Provisional Council of Government of each State
shall, within the shortest time possible, recruit an armed
militia from the residents of that State, sufficient in
number to maintain internal order and to prevent frontier
This armed militia in each State shall, for operational
purposes, be under the command of Jewish or Arab
officers resident in that State, but general political and
military control, including the choice of the militia's High
Command, shall be exercised by the Commission.
9.The Provisional Council of Government of each State
shall, not later than two months after the withdrawal of the
armed forces of the mandatory Power, hold elections to
the Constituent Assembly which shall be conducted on
The election regulations in each State shall be drawn up
by the Provisional Council of Government and approved
by the Commission. Qualified voters for each State for
this election shall be persons over eighteen years of age
who are (a) Palestinian citizens residing in that State;
and (b) Arabs and Jews residing in the State, although
not Palestinian citizens, who, before voting, have signed
a notice of intention to become citizens of such State.
Arabs and Jews residing in the City of Jerusalem who
have signed a notice of intention to become citizens, the
Arabs of the Arab State and the Jews of the Jewish
State, shall be entitled to vote in the Arab and Jewish
Women may vote and be elected to the Constituent
During the transitional period no Jew shall be permitted
to establish residence in the area of the proposed Arab
State, and no Arab shall be permitted to establish
residence in the area of the proposed Jewish State,
except by special leave of the Commission.
10.The Constituent Assembly of each State shall draft a
democratic constitution for its State and choose a
provisional government to succeed the Provisional
Council of Government appointed by the Commission.
The Constitutions of the States shall embody Chapters 1
and 2 of the Declaration provided for in section C below
and include, inter alia, provisions for:
a.Establishing in each State a legislative body
elected by universal suffrage and by secret ballot
on the basis of proportional representation, and an
executive body responsible to the legislature;
b.Settling all international disputes in which the State
may be involved by peaceful means in such a
manner that international peace and security, and
justice, are not endangered;
c.Accepting the obligation of the State to refrain in its
international relations from the threat or use of
force against the territorial integrity or political
independence of any State, or in any other manner
inconsistent with the purpose of the United Nations;
d.Guaranteeing to all persons equal and
non-discriminatory rights in civil, political,
economic and religious matters and the enjoyment
of human rights and fundamental freedoms,
including freedom of religion, language, speech
and publication, education, assembly and
e.Preserving freedom of transit and visit for all
residents and citizens of the other State in
Palestine and the City of Jerusalem, subject to
considerations of national security, provided that
each State shall control residence within its
11.The Commission shall appoint a preparatory economic
commission of three members to make whatever
arrangements are possible for economic co-operation,
with a view to establishing, as soon as practicable, the
Economic Union and the Joint Economic Board, as
provided in section D below.
12.During the period between the adoption of the
recommendations on the question of Palestine by the
General Assembly and the termination of the Mandate,
the mandatory Power in Palestine shall maintain full
responsibility for administration in areas from which it
has not withdrawn its armed forces. The Commission
shall assist the mandatory Power in the carrying out of
these functions. Similarly the mandatory Power shall
co-operate with the Commission in the execution of its
13.With a view to ensuring that there shall be continuity in
the functioning of administrative services and that, on the
withdrawal of the armed forces of the mandatory Power,
the whole administration shall be in the charge of the
Provisional Councils and the Joint Economic Board,
respectively, acting under the Commission, there shall
be a progressive transfer, from the mandatory Power to
the Commission, of responsibility for all the functions of
government, including that of maintaining law and order
in the areas from which the forces of the mandatory
Power have been withdrawn.
14.The Commission shall be guided in its activities by the
recommendations of the General Assembly and by such
instructions as the Security Council may consider
necessary to issue.
The measures taken by the Commission, within the
recommendations of the General Assembly, shall
become immediately effective unless the Commission
has previously received contrary instructions from the
The Commission shall render periodic monthly progress
reports, or more frequently if desirable, to the Security
15.The Commission shall make its final report to the next
regular session of the General Assembly and to the
Security Council simultaneously.
A declaration shall be made to the United Nations by the
Provisional Government of each proposed State before
independence. It shall contain, inter alia, the following clauses:
The stipulations contained in the Declaration are recognized
as fundamental laws of the State and no law, regulation or
official action shall conflict or interfere with these stipulations,
nor shall any law, regulation or official action prevail over them.
Chapter I: Holy Places, Religious Buildings and Sites
1.Existing rights in respect of Holy Places and religious
buildings or sites shall not be denied or impaired.
2.In so far as Holy Places are concerned, the liberty of
access, visit, and transit shall be guaranteed, in
conformity with existing rights, to all residents and citizen
of the other State and of the City of Jerusalem, as well as
to aliens, without distinction as to nationality, subject to
requirements of national security, public order and
Similarly, freedom of worship shall be guaranteed in
conformity with existing rights, subject to the
maintenance of public order and decorum.
3.Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall be
preserved. No act shall be permitted which may in an
way impair their sacred character. If at any time it
appears to the Government that any particular Holy
Place, religious, building or site is in need of urgent
repair, the Government may call upon the community or
communities concerned to carry out such repair. The
Government may carry it out itself at the expense of the
community or community concerned if no action is taken
within a reasonable time.
4.No taxation shall be levied in respect of any Holy Place,
religious building or site which was exempt from taxation
on the date of the creation of the State.
No change in the incidence of such taxation shall be
made which would either discriminate between the
owners or occupiers of Holy Places, religious buildings
or sites, or would place such owners or occupiers in a
position less favourable in relation to the general
incidence of taxation than existed at the time of the
adoption of the Assembly's recommendations.
5.The Governor of the City of Jerusalem shall have the right
to determine whether the provisions of the Constitution of
the State in relation to Holy Places, religious buildings
and sites within the borders of the State and the religious
rights appertaining thereto, are being properly applied
and respected, and to make decisions on the basis of
existing rights in cases of disputes which may arise
between the different religious communities or the rites
of a religious community with respect to such places,
buildings and sites. He shall receive full co-operation and
such privileges and immunities as are necessary for the
exercise of his functions in the State.
Chapter 2: Religious and Minority Rights
1.Freedom of conscience and the free exercise of all
forms of worship, subject only to the maintenance of
public order and morals, shall be ensured to all.
2.No discrimination of any kind shall be made between the
inhabitants on the ground of race, religion, language or
3.All persons within the jurisdiction of the State shall be
entitled to equal protection of the laws.
4.The family law and personal status of the various
minorities and their religious interests, including
endowments, shall be respected.
5.Except as may be required for the maintenance of public
order and good government, no measure shall be taken
to obstruct or interfere with the enterprise of religious or
charitable bodies of all faiths or to discriminate against
any representative or member of these bodies on the
ground of his religion or nationality.
6.The State shall ensure adequate primary and secondary
education for the Arab and Jewish minority, respectively,
in its own language and its cultural traditions.
The right of each community to maintain its own schools
for the education of its own members in its own
language, while conforming to such educational
requirements of a general nature as the State may
impose, shall not be denied or impaired. Foreign
educational establishments shall continue their activity on
the basis of their existing rights.
7.No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by any
citizen of the State of any language in private
intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the Press or in
publications of any kind, or at public meetings.(3)
8.No expropriation of land owned by an Arab in the Jewish
State (by a Jew in the Arab State)(4) shall be allowed
except for public purposes. In all cases of expropriation
full compensation as fixed by the Supreme Court shall be
said previous to dispossession.
Chapter 3: Citizenship, International Conventions and
Palestinian citizens residing in Palestine outside the City of
Jerusalem, as well as Arabs and Jews who, not holding
Palestinian citizenship, reside in Palestine outside the City of
Jerusalem shall, upon the recognition of independence,
become citizens of the State in which they are resident and
enjoy full civil and political rights. Persons over the age of
eighteen years may opt, within one year from the date of
recognition of independence of the State in which they reside,
for citizenship of the other State, providing that no Arab
residing in the area of the proposed Arab State shall have the
right to opt for citizenship in the proposed Jewish State and no
Jew residing in the proposed Jewish State shall have the right
to opt for citizenship in the proposed Arab State. The exercise
of this right of option will be taken to include the wives and
children under eighteen years of age of persons so opting.
Arabs residing in the area of the proposed Jewish State and
Jews residing in the area of the proposed Arab State who
have signed a notice of intention to opt for citizenship of the
other State shall be eligible to vote in the elections to the
Constituent Assembly of that State, but not in the elections to
the Constituent Assembly of the State in which they reside.
2. International conventions
a.The State shall be bound by all the international
agreements and conventions, both general and special,
to which Palestine has become a party. Subject to any
right of denunciation provided for therein, such
agreements and conventions shall be respected by the
State throughout the period for which they were
b.Any dispute about the applicability and continued validity
of international conventions or treaties signed or
adhered to by the mandatory Power on behalf of
Palestine shall be referred to the International Court of
Justice in accordance with the provisions of the Statute
of the Court.
3. Financial obligations
a.The State shall respect and fulfil all financial obligations
of whatever nature assumed on behalf of Palestine by
the mandatory Power during the exercise of the Mandate
and recognized by the State. This provision includes the
right of public servants to pensions, compensation or
b.These obligations shall be fulfilled through participation
in the Joint Economic Board in respect of those
obligations applicable to Palestine as a whole, and
individually in respect of those applicable to, and fairly
apportionable between, the States.
c.A Court of Claims, affiliated with the Joint Economic
Board, and composed of one member appointed by the
United Nations, one representative of the United
Kingdom and one representative of the State concerned,
should be established. Any dispute between the United
Kingdom and the State respecting claims not recognized
by the latter should be referred to that Court.
d.Commercial concessions granted in respect of any part
of Palestine prior to the adoption of the resolution by the
General Assembly shall continue to be valid according to
their terms, unless modified by agreement between the
concession-holders and the State.
Chapter 4: Miscellaneous Provisions
1.The provisions of chapters 1 and 2 of the declaration
shall be under the guarantee of the United Nations, and
no modifications shall be made in them without the
assent of the General Assembly of the United Nations.
Any Member of the United Nations shall have the right to
bring to the attention of the General Assembly any
infraction or danger of infraction of any of these
stipulations, and the General Assembly may thereupon
make such recommendations as it may deem proper in
2.Any dispute relating to the application or interpretation of
this declaration shall be referred, at the request of either
party, to the International Court of Justice, unless the
parties agree to another mode of settlement.
D. ECONOMIC UNION AND TRANSIT
1.The Provisional Council of Government of each State
shall enter into an undertaking with respect to Economic
Union and Transit. This undertaking shall be drafted by
the Commission provided for in section B, paragraph 1,
utilizing to the greatest possible extent the advice and
cooperation of representative organizations and bodies
from each of the proposed States. It shall contain
provisions to establish the Economic Union of Palestine
and provide for other matters of common interest. If by 1
April 1948 the Provisional Councils of Government have
not entered into the undertaking, the undertaking shall be
put into force by the Commission.
The Economic Union of Palestine
2.The objectives of the Economic Union of Palestine shall
a.A customs union;
b.A joint currency system providing for a single
foreign exchange rate;
c.Operation in the common interest on a
non-discriminatory basis of railways inter-State
highways; postal, telephone and telegraphic
services and ports and airports involved in
international trade and commerce;
d.Joint economic development, especially in respect
of irrigation, land reclamation and soil
e.Access for both States and for the City of
Jerusalem on a non-discriminatory basis to water
and power facilities.
3.There shall be established a Joint Economic Board,
which shall consist of three representatives of each of the
two States and three foreign members appointed by the
Economic and Social Council of the United Nations. The
foreign members shall be appointed in the first instance
for a term of three years; they shall serve as individuals
and not as representatives of States.
4.The functions of the Joint Economic Board shall be to
implement either directly or by delegation the measures
necessary to realize the objectives of the Economic
Union. It shall have all powers of organization and
administration necessary to fulfil its functions.
5.The States shall bind themselves to put into effect the
decisions of the Joint Economic Board. The Board's
decisions shall be taken by a majority vote.
6.In the event of failure of a State to take the necessary
action the Board may, by a vote of six members, decide
to withhold an appropriate portion of the part of the
customs revenue to which the State in question is
entitled under the Economic Union. Should the State
persist in its failure to cooperate, the Board may decide
by a simple majority vote upon such further sanctions,
including disposition of funds which it has withheld, as it
may deem appropriate.
7.In relation to economic development, the functions of the
Board shall be planning, investigation and
encouragement of joint development projects, but it shall
not undertake such projects except with the assent of
both States and the City of Jerusalem, in the event that
Jerusalem is directly involved in the development project.
8.In regard to the joint currency system, the currencies
circulating in the two States and the City of Jerusalem
shall be issued under the authority of the Joint Economic
Board, which shall be the sole issuing authority and
which shall determine the reserves to be held against
9.So far as is consistent with paragraph 2(b) above, each
State may operate its own central bank, control its own
fiscal and credit policy, its foreign exchange receipts and
expenditures, the grant of import licences, and may
conduct international financial operations on its own faith
and credit. During the first two years after the termination
of the Mandate, the Joint Economic Board shall have the
authority to take such measures as may be necessary to
ensure that - to the extent that the total foreign exchange
revenues of the two States from the export of goods and
services permit, and provided that each State takes
appropriate measures to conserve its own foreign
exchange resources - each State shall have available, in
any twelve months' period, foreign exchange sufficient to
assure the supply of quantities of imported goods and
services for consumption in its territory equivalent to the
quantities of such goods and services consumed in that
territory in the twelve months' period ending 31
10.All economic authority not specifically vested in the Joint
Economic Board is reserved to each State.
11.There shall be a common customs tariff with complete
freedom of trade between the States, and between the
States and the City of Jerusalem.
12.The tariff schedules shall be drawn up by a Tariff
Commission, consisting of representatives of each of the
States in equal numbers, and shall be submitted to the
Joint Economic Board for approval by a majority vote. In
case of disagreement in the Tariff Commission, the Joint
Economic Board shall arbitrate the points of difference.
In the event that the Tariff Commission fails to draw up
any schedule by a date to be fixed, the Joint Economic
Board shall determine the tariff schedule.
13.The following items shall be a first charge on the customs
and other common revenue of the Joint Economic
a.The expenses of the customs service and of the
operation of the joint services;
b.The administrative expenses of the Joint Economic
c.The financial obligations of the Administration of
Palestine, consisting of:
i.The service of the outstanding public debt;
ii.The cost of superannuation benefits, now
being paid or falling due in the future, in
accordance with the rules and to the extent
established by paragraph 3 of chapter 3
14.After these obligations have been met in full, the surplus
revenue from the customs and other common services
shall be divided in the following manner: not less than 5
per cent and not more than 10 per cent to the City of
Jerusalem; the residue shall be allocated to each State
by the Joint Economic Board equitably, with the objective
of maintaining a sufficient and suitable level of
government and social services in each State, except
that the share of either State shall not exceed the amount
of that State's contribution to the revenues of the
Economic Union by more than approximately four million
pounds in any year. The amount granted may be
adjusted by the Board according to the price level in
relation to the prices prevailing at the time of the
establishment of the Union. After five years, the
principles of the distribution of the joint revenue may be
revised by the Joint Economic Board on a basis of
15.All international conventions and treaties affecting
customs tariff rates, and those communications services
under the jurisdiction of the Joint Economic Board, shall
be entered into by both States. In these matters, the two
States shall be bound to act in accordance with the
majority of the Joint Economic Board.
16.The Joint Economic Board shall endeavour to secure for
Palestine's exports fair and equal access to world
17.All enterprises operated by the Joint Economic Board
shall pay fair wages on a uniform basis.
Freedom of Transit and Visit
18.The undertaking shall contain provisions preserving
freedom of transit and visit for all residents or citizens of
both States and of the City of Jerusalem, subject to
security considerations; provided that each State and the
City shall control residence within its borders.
Termination, Modification and Interpretation of the
19.The undertaking and any treaty issuing therefrom shall
remain in force for a period of ten years. It shall continue
in force until notice of termination, to take effect two
years thereafter, is given by either of the parties.
20.During the initial ten-year period, the undertaking and
any treaty issuing therefrom may not be modified except
by consent of both parties and with the approval of the
21.Any dispute relating to the application or the
interpretation of the undertaking and any treaty issuing
therefrom shall be referred, at the request of either party,
to the International Court Of Justice, unless the parties
agree to another mode of settlement.
1.The movable assets of the Administration of Palestine
shall be allocated to the Arab and Jewish States and the
City of Jerusalem on an equitable basis. Allocations
should be made by the United Nations Commission
referred to iii section B, paragraph 1, above. Immovable
assets shall become the property of the government of
the territory in which they are situated.
2.During the period between the appointment of the United
Nations Commission and the termination of the
Mandate, the mandatory Power shall, except in respect
of ordinary operations, consult with the Commission on
any measure which it may contemplate involving the
liquidation, disposal or encumbering of the assets of the
Palestine Government, such as the accumulated treasury
surplus, the proceeds of Government bond issues, State
lands or any other asset.
F. ADMISSION TO MEMBERSHIP IN THE UNITED
When the independence of either the Arab or the Jewish State
as envisaged in this plan has become effective and the
declaration and undertaking, as envisaged in this plan, have
been signed by either of them, sympathetic consideration
should be given to its application for admission to membership
in the United Nations in accordance with article 4 of the
Charter of the United Nations.
Part II. - Boundaries
A. THE ARAB STATE
The area of the Arab State in Western Galilee is bounded on
the west by the Mediterranean and on the north by the frontier
of the Lebanon from Ras en Naqura to a point north of Saliha.
From there the boundary proceeds southwards, leaving the
built-up area of Saliha in the Arab State, to join the
southernmost point of this village. There it follows the western
boundary line of the villages of 'Alma, Rihaniya and Teitaba,
thence following the northern boundary line of Meirun village to
join the Acre-Safad Sub-District boundary line. It follows this
line to a point west of Es Sammu'i village and joins it again at
the northernmost point of Farradiya. Thence it follows the
sub-district boundary line to the Acre-Safad main road. From
here it follows the western boundary of Kafr-I'nan village until it
reaches the Tiberias-Acre Sub-District boundary line, passing
to the west of the junction of the Acre-Safad and
Lubiya-Kafr-I'nan roads. From the south-west corner of
Kafr-I'nan village the boundary line follows the western
boundary of the Tiberias Sub-District to a point close to the
boundary line between the villages of Maghar and 'Eilabun,
thence bulging out to the west to include as much of the
eastern part of the plain of Battuf as is necessary for the
reservoir proposed by the Jewish Agency for the irrigation of
lands to the south and east.
The boundary rejoins the Tiberias Sub-District boundary at a
point on the Nazareth-Tiberias road south-east of the built-up
area of Tur'an; thence it runs southwards, at first following the
sub-district boundary and then passing between the Kadoorie
Agricultural School and Mount Tabor, to a point due south at
the base of Mount Tabor. From here it runs due west, parallel
to the horizontal grid line 230, to the north-east corner of the
village lands of Tel Adashim. It then runs to the northwest
corner of these lands, whence it turns south and west so as to
include in the Arab State the sources of the Nazareth water
supply in Yafa village. On reaching Ginneiger it follows the
eastern, northern and western boundaries of the lands of this
village to their south-west comer, whence it proceeds in a
straight line to a point on the Haifa-Afula railway on the
boundary between the villages of Sarid and El-Mujeidil. This is
the point of intersection. The south-western boundary of the
area of the Arab State in Galilee takes a line from this point,
passing northwards along the eastern boundaries of Sarid and
Gevat to the north-eastern corner of Nahalal, proceeding
thence across the land of Kefar ha Horesh to a central point on
the southern boundary of the village of 'Ilut, thence westwards
along that village boundary to the eastern boundary of Beit
Lahm, thence northwards and north-eastwards along its
western boundary to the north-eastern corner of Waldheim and
thence north-westwards across the village lands of Shafa 'Amr
to the southeastern corner of Ramat Yohanan. From here it
runs due north-north-east to a point on the Shafa 'Amr-Haifa
road, west of its junction with the road of I'billin. From there it
proceeds north-east to a point on the southern boundary of
I'billin situated to the west of the I'billin-Birwa road. Thence
along that boundary to its westernmost point, whence it turns to
the north, follows across the village land of Tamra to the
north-westernmost corner and along the western boundary of
Julis until it reaches the Acre-Safad road. It then runs
westwards along the southern side of the Safad-Acre road to
the Galilee-Haifa District boundary, from which point it follows
that boundary to the sea.
The boundary of the hill country of Samaria and Judea starts
on the Jordan River at the Wadi Malih south-east of Beisan
and runs due west to meet the Beisan-Jericho road and then
follows the western side of that road in a north-westerly
direction to the junction of the boundaries of the Sub-Districts
of Beisan, Nablus, and Jenin. From that point it follows the
Nablus-Jenin sub-District boundary westwards for a distance
of about three kilometres and then turns north-westwards,
passing to the east of the built-up areas of the villages of
Jalbun and Faqqu'a, to the boundary of the Sub-Districts of
Jenin and Beisan at a point northeast of Nuris. Thence it
proceeds first northwestwards to a point due north of the
built-up area of Zie'in and then westwards to the Afula-Jenin
railway, thence north-westwards along the District boundary
line to the point of intersection on the Hejaz railway. From here
the boundary runs southwestwards, including the built-up area
and some of the land of the village of Kh. Lid in the Arab State
to cross the Haifa-Jenin road at a point on the district boundary
between Haifa and Samaria west of El- Mansi. It follows this
boundary to the southernmost point of the village of
El-Buteimat. From here it follows the northern and eastern
boundaries of the village of Ar'ara rejoining the Haifa-Samaria
district boundary at Wadi 'Ara, and thence proceeding
south-south-westwards in an approximately straight line joining
up with the western boundary of Qaqun to a point east of the
railway line on the eastern boundary of Qaqun village. From
here it runs along the railway line some distance to the east of
it to a point just east of the Tulkarm railway station. Thence the
boundary follows a line half-way between the railway and the
Tulkarm-Qalqiliya-Jaljuliya and Ras El-Ein road to a point just
east of Ras El-Ein station, whence it proceeds along the
railway some distance to the east of it to the point on the
railway line south of the junction of the Haifa-Lydda and Beit
Nabala lines, whence it proceeds along the southern border of
Lydda airport to its south-west corner, thence in a
south-westerly direction to a point just west of the built-up area
of Sarafand El 'Amar, whence it turns south, passing just to the
west of the built-up area of Abu El-Fadil to the north-east
corner of the lands of Beer Ya'aqov. (The boundary line should
be so demarcated as to allow direct access from the Arab
State to the airport.) Thence the boundary line follows the
western and southern boundaries of Ramle village, to the
north-east corner of El Na'ana village, thence in a straight line
to the southernmost point of El Barriya, along the eastern
boundary of that village and the southern boundary of 'Innaba
village. Thence it turns north to follow the southern side of the
Jaffa-Jerusalem road until El-Qubab, whence it follows the
road to the boundary of Abu-Shusha. It runs along the eastern
boundaries of Abu Shusha, Seidun, Hulda to the southernmost
point of Hulda, thence westwards in a straight line to the
north-eastern corner of Umm Kalkha, thence following the
northern boundaries of Umm Kalkha, Qazaza and the northern
and western boundaries of Mukhezin to the Gaza District
boundary and thence runs across the village lands of
El-Mismiya El-Kabira, and Yasur to the southern point of
intersection, which is midway between the built-up areas of
Yasur and Batani Sharqi.
From the southern point of intersection the boundary lines run
north-westwards between the villages of Gan Yavne and Barqa
to the sea at a point half way between Nabi Yunis and Minat
El-Qila, and south-eastwards to a point west of Qastina,
whence it turns in a south-westerly direction, passing to the
east of the built-up areas of Es Sawafir Esh Sharqiya and
'Ibdis. From the south-east corner of 'Ibdis village it runs to a
point southwest of the built-up area of Beit 'Affa, crossing the
Hebron-El-Majdal road just to the west of the built-up area of
'Iraq Suweidan. Thence it proceeds southward along the
western village boundary of El-Faluja to the Beersheba
Sub-District boundary. It then runs across the tribal lands of
'Arab El-Jubarat to a point on the boundary between the
Sub-Districts of Beersheba and Hebron north of Kh.
Khuweilifa, whence it proceeds in a south-westerly direction to
a point on the Beersheba-Gaza main road two kilometres to
the north-west of the town. It then turns south-eastwards to
reach Wadi Sab' at a point situated one kilometer to the west
of it. From here it turns north-eastwards and proceeds along
Wadi Sab' and along the Beersheba-Hebron road for a
distance of one kilometer, whence it turns eastwards and runs
in a straight line to Kh. Kuseifa to join the Beersheba-Hebron
Sub-District boundary. It then follows the Beersheba-Hebron
boundary eastwards to a point north of Ras Ez-Zuweira, only
departing from it so as to cut across the base of the
indentation between vertical grid lines 150 and 160.
About five kilometres north-east of Ras Ez-Zuweira it turns
north, excluding from the Arab State a strip along the coast of
the Dead Sea not more than seven kilometres in depth, as far
as 'Ein Geddi, whence it turns due east to join the Transjordan
frontier in the Dead Sea.
The northern boundary of the Arab section of the coastal plain
runs from a point between Minat El-Qila and Nabi Yunis,
passing between the built-up areas of Gan Yavne and Barqa to
the point of intersection. From here it turns south-westwards,
running across the lands of Batani Sharqi, along the eastern
boundary of the lands of Beit Daras and across the lands of
Julis, leaving the built-up areas of Batani Sharqi and Julis to
the westwards, as far as the north-west corner of the lands of
Beit-Tima. Thence it runs east of El-Jiya across the village
lands of El-Barbara along the eastern boundaries of the
villages of Beit Jirja, Deir Suneid and Dimra. From the
south-east corner of Dimra the boundary passes across the
lands of Beit Hanun, leaving the Jewish lands of Nir-Am to the
eastwards. From the south-east corner of Beit Hanun the line
runs south-west to a point south of the parallel grid line 100,
then turns north-west for two kilometres, turning again in a
southwesterly direction and continuing in an almost straight line
to the north-west corner of the village lands of Kirbet Ikhza'a.
From there it follows the boundary line of this village to its
southernmost point. It then runs in a southerly direction along
the vertical grid line 90 to its junction with the horizontal grid
line 70. It then turns south-eastwards to Kh. El-Ruheiba and
then proceeds in a southerly direction to a point known as
El-Baha, beyond which it crosses the Beersheba-EI 'Auja main
road to the west of Kh. El-Mushrifa. From there it joins Wadi
El-Zaiyatin just to the west of El-Subeita. From there it turns to
the north-east and then to the south-east following this Wadi
and passes to the east of 'Abda to join Wadi Nafkh. It then
bulges to the south-west along Wadi Nafkh, Wadi 'Ajrim and
Wadi Lassan to the point where Wadi Lassan crosses the
The area of the Arab enclave of Jaffa consists of that part of
the town-planning area of Jaffa which lies to the west of the
Jewish quarters lying south of Tel-Aviv, to the west of the
continuation of Herzl street up to its junction with the
Jaffa-Jerusalem road, to the south-west of the section of the
Jaffa-Jerusalem road lying south-east of that junction, to the
west of Miqve Yisrael lands, to the northwest of Holon local
council area, to the north of the line linking up the north-west
corner of Holon with the northeast corner of Bat Yam local
council area and to the north of Bat Yam local council area.
The question of Karton quarter will be decided by the
Boundary Commission, bearing in mind among other
considerations the desirability of including the smallest
possible number of its Arab inhabitants and the largest
possible number of its Jewish inhabitants in the Jewish State.
B. THE JEWISH STATE
The north-eastern sector of the Jewish State (Eastern Galilee)
is bounded on the north and west by the Lebanese frontier and
on the east by the frontiers of Syria and Trans-jordan. It
includes the whole of the Huleh Basin, Lake Tiberias, the
whole of the Beisan Sub-District, the boundary line being
extended to the crest of the Gilboa mountains and the Wadi
Malih. From there the Jewish State extends north-west,
following the boundary described in respect of the Arab State.
The Jewish section of the coastal plain extends from a point
between Minat El-Qila and Nabi Yunis in the Gaza Sub-District
and includes the towns of Haifa and Tel-Aviv, leaving Jaffa as
an enclave of the Arab State. The eastern frontier of the Jewish
State follows the boundary described in respect of the Arab
The Beersheba area comprises the whole of the Beersheba
Sub-District, including the Negeb and the eastern part of the
Gaza Sub-District, but excluding the town of Beersheba and
those areas described in respect of the Arab State. It includes
also a strip of land along the Dead Sea stretching from the
Beersheba-Hebron Sub-District boundary line to 'Ein Geddi,
as described in respect of the Arab State.
C. THE CITY OF JERUSALEM
The boundaries of the City of Jerusalem are as defined in the
recommendations on the City of Jerusalem. (See Part III,
section B, below).
Part III. - City of Jerusalem(5)
A. SPECIAL REGIME
The City of Jerusalem shall be established as a corpus
separatum under a special international regime and shall be
administered by the United Nations. The Trusteeship Council
shall be designated to discharge the responsibilities of the
Administering Authority on behalf of the United Nations.
B. BOUNDARIES OF THE CITY
The City of Jerusalem shall include the present municipality of
Jerusalem plus the surrounding villages and towns, the most
eastern of which shall be Abu Dis; the most southern,
Bethlehem; the most western, 'Ein Karim (including also the
built-up area of Motsa); and the most northern Shu'fat, as
indicated on the attached sketch-map (annex B).
C. STATUTE OF THE CITY
The Trusteeship Council shall, within five months of the
approval of the present plan, elaborate and approve a detailed
statute of the City which shall contain, inter alia, the substance
of the following provisions:
1.Government machinery; special objectives. The
Administering Authority in discharging its administrative
obligations shall pursue the following special objectives:
a.To protect and to preserve the unique spiritual and
religious interests located in the city of the three
great monotheistic faiths throughout the world,
Christian, Jewish and Moslem; to this end to
ensure that order and peace, and especially
religious peace, reign in Jerusalem;
b.To foster cooperation among all the inhabitants of
the city in their own interests as well as in order to
encourage and support the peaceful development
of the mutual relations between the two Palestinian
peoples throughout the Holy Land; to promote the
security, well-being and any constructive measures
of development of the residents having regard to
the special circumstances and customs of the
various peoples and communities.
2.Governor and Administrative staff. A Governor of the City
of Jerusalem shall be appointed by the Trusteeship
Council and shall be responsible to it. He shall be
selected on the basis of special qualifications and
without regard to nationality. He shall not, however, be a
citizen of either State in Palestine.
The Governor shall represent the United Nations in the
City and shall exercise on their behalf all powers of
administration, including the conduct of external affairs.
He shall be assisted by an administrative staff classed
as international officers in the meaning of Article 100 of
the Charter and chosen whenever practicable from the
residents of the city and of the rest of Palestine on a
non-discriminatory basis. A detailed plan for the
organization of the administration of the city shall be
submitted by the Governor to the Trusteeship Council
and duly approved by it.
3.3. Local autonomy
a.The existing local autonomous units in the territory
of the city (villages, townships and municipalities)
shall enjoy wide powers of local government and
b.The Governor shall study and submit for the
consideration and decision of the Trusteeship
Council a plan for the establishment of special
town units consisting, respectively, of the Jewish
and Arab sections of new Jerusalem. The new
town units shall continue to form part the present
municipality of Jerusalem.
a.The City of Jerusalem shall be demilitarized;
neutrality shall be declared and preserved, and no
para-military formations, exercises or activities
shall be permitted within its borders.
b.Should the administration of the City of Jerusalem
be seriously obstructed or prevented by the
non-cooperation or interference of one or more
sections of the population the Governor shall have
authority to take such measures as may be
necessary to restore the effective functioning of
c.To assist in the maintenance of internal law and
order, especially for the protection of the Holy
Places and religious buildings and sites in the city,
the Governor shall organize a special police force
of adequate strength, the members of which shall
be recruited outside of Palestine. The Governor
shall be empowered to direct such budgetary
provision as may be necessary for the
maintenance of this force.
A Legislative Council, elected by adult residents of the
city irrespective of nationality on the basis of universal
and secret suffrage and proportional representation,
shall have powers of legislation and taxation. No
legislative measures shall, however, conflict or interfere
with the provisions which will be set forth in the Statute of
the City, nor shall any law, regulation, or official action
prevail over them. The Statute shall grant to the Governor
a right of vetoing bills inconsistent with the provisions
referred to in the preceding sentence. It shall also
empower him to promulgate temporary ordinances in
case the Council fails to adopt in time a bill deemed
essential to the normal functioning of the administration.
6.Administration of Justice.
The Statute shall provide for the establishment of an
independent judiciary system, including a court of
appeal. All the inhabitants of the city shall be subject to it.
7.Economic Union and Economic Regime.
The City of Jerusalem shall be included in the Economic
Union of Palestine and be bound by all stipulations of the
undertaking and of any treaties issued therefrom, as well
as by the decisions of the Joint Economic Board. The
headquarters of the Economic Board shall be
established in the territory City. The Statute shall provide
for the regulation of economic matters not falling within
the regime of the Economic Union, on the basis of equal
treatment and non-discrimination for all members of thc
United Nations and their nationals.
8.Freedom of Transit and Visit: Control of residents.
Subject to considerations of security, and of economic
welfare as determined by the Governor under the
directions of the Trusteeship Council, freedom of entry
into, and residence within the borders of the City shall be
guaranteed for the residents or citizens of the Arab and
Jewish States. Immigration into, and residence within,
the borders of the city for nationals of other States shall
be controlled by the Governor under the directions of the
9.Relations with Arab and Jewish States.
of the Arab and Jewish States shall be accredited to the
Governor of the City and charged with the protection of
the interests of their States and nationals in connection
with the international administration of thc City.
Arabic and Hebrew shall be the official languages of the
city. This will not preclude the adoption of one or more
additional working languages, as may be required.
All the residents shall become ipso facto citizens of the
City of Jerusalem unless they opt for citizenship of the
State of which they have been citizens or, if Arabs or
Jews, have filed notice of intention to become citizens of
the Arab or Jewish State respectively, according to Part
1, section B, paragraph 9, of this Plan.
The Trusteeship Council shall make arrangements for
consular protection of the citizens of the City outside its
12.Freedoms of citizens
a.Subject only to the requirements of public order
and morals, the inhabitants of the City shall be
ensured the enjoyment of human rights and
fundamental freedoms, including freedom of
conscience, religion and worship, language,
education, speech and press, assembly and
association, and petition.
b.No discrimination of any kind shall be made
between the inhabitants on the grounds of race,
religion, language or sex.
c.All persons within the City shall be entitled to equal
protection of the laws.
d.The family law and personal status of the various
persons and communities and their religious
interests, including endowments, shall be
e.Except as may be required for the maintenance of
public order and good government, no measure
shall be taken to obstruct or interfere with the
enterprise of religious or charitable bodies of all
faiths or to discriminate against any representative
or member of these bodies on the ground of his
religion or nationality.
f.The City shall ensure adequate primary and
secondary education for the Arab and Jewish
communities respectively, in their own languages
and in accordance with their cultural traditions.
The right of each community to maintain its own
schools for the education of its own members in its
own language, while conforming to such
educational requirements of a general nature as
the City may impose, shall not be denied or
impaired. Foreign educational establishments shall
continue their activity on the basis of their existing
g.No restriction shall be imposed on the free use by
any inhabitant of the City of any language in private
intercourse, in commerce, in religion, in the Press
or in publications of any kind, or at public meetings.
a.Existing rights in respect of Holy Places and
religious buildings or sites shall not be denied or
b.Free access to the Holy Places and religious
buildings or sites and the free exercise of worship
shall be secured in conformity with existing rights
and subject to the requirements of public order and
c.Holy Places and religious buildings or sites shall
be preserved. No act shall be permitted which may
in any way impair their sacred character. If at any
time it appears to the Governor that any particular
Holy Place, religious building or site is in need of
urgent repair, the Governor may call upon the
community or communities concerned to carry out
such repair. The Governor may carry it out himself
at the expense of the community or communities
concerned if no action is taken within a reasonable
d.No taxation shall be levied in respect of any Holy
Place, religious building or site which was exempt
from taxation on the date of the creation of the City.
No change in the incidence of such taxation shall
be made which would either discriminate between
the owners or occupiers of Holy Places, religious
buildings or sites or would place such owners or
occupiers in a position less favourable in relation
to the general incidence of taxation than existed at
the time of the adoption of the Assembly's
14.Special powers of the Governor in respect of the Holy
Places, religious buildings and sites in the City and in
any part of Palestine.
a.The protection of the Holy Places, religious
buildings and sites located in the City of Jerusalem
shall be a special concern of the Governor.
b.With relation to such places, buildings and sites in
Palestine outside the city, the Governor shall
determine, on the ground of powers granted to him
by the Constitution of both States, whether the
provisions of the Constitution of the Arab and
Jewish States in Palestine dealing therewith and
the religious rights appertaining thereto are being
properly applied and respected.
c.The Governor shall also be empowered to make
decisions on the basis of existing rights in cases of
disputes which may arise between the different
religious communities or the rites of a religious
community in respect of the Holy Places, religious
buildings and sites in any part of Palestine.
In this task he may be assisted by a consultative
council of representatives of different
denominations acting in an advisory capacity.
D. DURATION OF THE SPECIAL REGIME
The Statute elaborated by the Trusteeship Council the
aforementioned principles shall come into force not later than 1
October 1948. It shall remain in force in the first instance for a
period of ten years, unless the Trusteeship Council finds it
necessary to undertake a re-examination of these provisions
at an earlier date. After the expiration of this period the whole
scheme shall be subject to examination by the Trusteeship
Council in the light of experience acquired with its functioning.
The residents the City shall be then free to express by means
of a referendum their wishes as to possible modifications of
regime of the City.
Part IV. Capitulations
States whose nationals have in the past enjoyed in Palestine
the privileges and immunities of foreigners, including the
benefits of consular jurisdiction and protection, as formerly
enjoyed by capitulation or usage in the Ottoman Empire, are
invited to renounce any right pertaining to them to the
re-establishment of such privileges and immunities in the
proposed Arab and Jewish States and the City of Jerusalem.
Adopted at the 128th plenary meeting:
In favour: 33
Australia, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Byelorussian S.S.R.,
Canada, Costa Rica, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican
Republic, Ecuador, France, Guatemala, Haiti, Iceland,
Liberia, Luxemburg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua,
Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Poland,
Sweden, Ukrainian S.S.R., Union of South Africa, U.S.A.,
U.S.S.R., Uruguay, Venezuela.
Afghanistan, Cuba, Egypt, Greece, India, Iran, Iraq, Lebanon,
Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, Yemen.
Argentina, Chile, China, Colombia, El Salvador, Ethiopia,
Honduras, Mexico, United Kingdom, Yugoslavia.
(1) See Official Records of the General Assembly, Second Session
Supplement No. 11,Volumes l-lV.
* At its hundred and twenty-eighth plenary meeting on 29 November 1947
the General Assembly, in accordance with the terms of the above
resolution, elected the following members of the United Nations
Commission on Palestine: Bolivia, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Panama,
(2) This resolution was adopted without reference to a Committee.
(3) The following stipulation shall be added to the declaration concerning
the Jewish State: "In the Jewish State adequate facilities shall be given to
Arabic-speaking citizens for the use of their language, either orally or in
writing, in the legislature, before the Courts and in the administration."
(4) In the declaration concerning the Arab State, the words "by an Arab in
the Jewish State" should be replaced by the words "by a Jew in the Arab
(5) On the question of the internationalization of Jerusalem, see also
General Assembly resolutions 185 (S-2) of 26 April 1948; 187 (S-2) of 6
May 1948, 303 (lV) of 9 December 1949, and resolutions of the
Trusteeship Council (Section IV).
7 May 2003
Letter dated 7 May 2003 from the Secretary-General
addressed to the President of the Security Council
I have the honour to transmit to you herewith the text of a road map to realize the vision of two States, Israel and Palestine,
living side by side in peace and security, as affirmed in Security Council resolution 1397 (2002) (see annex).
The text has been prepared by the Quartet — consisting of representatives of the United States of America, the European
Union, the Russian Federation and the United Nations — and was presented to the Government of Israel and the Palestinian
Authority on 30 April 2003.
I should be grateful if you would bring this text to the attention of the members of the Security Council.
(Signed) Kofi A. Annan
A performance-based roadmap to a
permanent two-state solution to the
The following is a performance-based and goal-driven
roadmap, with clear phases, timelines, target dates, and
benchmarks aiming at progress through reciprocal steps by
the two parties in the political, security, economic,
humanitarian, and institution-building fields, under the
auspices of the Quartet [the United States, European
Union, United Nations, and Russia]. The destination is a
final and comprehensive settlement of the
Israel-Palestinian conflict by 2005, as presented in
President Bush's speech of 24 June, and welcomed by the
EU, Russia and the UN in the 16 July and 17 September
Quartet Ministerial statements.
A two state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict will
only be achieved through an end to violence and
terrorism, when the Palestinian people have a leadership
acting decisively against terror and willing and able to
build a practicing democracy based on tolerance and
liberty, and through Israel's readiness to do what is
necessary for a democratic Palestinian state to be
established, and a clear, unambiguous acceptance by both
parties of the goal of a negotiated settlement as described
below. The Quartet will assist and facilitate
implementation of the plan, starting in Phase I, including
direct discussions between the parties as required. The
plan establishes a realistic timeline for implementation.
However, as a performance-based plan, progress will
require and depend upon the good faith efforts of the
parties, and their compliance with each of the obligations
outlined below. Should the parties perform their
obligations rapidly, progress within and through the phases
may come sooner than indicated in the plan.
Non-compliance with obligations will impede progress.
A settlement, negotiated between the parties, will result in
the emergence of an independent, democratic, and viable
Palestinian state living side by side in peace and security
with Israel and its other neighbors. The settlement will
resolve the Israel-Palestinian conflict, and end the
occupation that began in 1967, based on the foundations
of the Madrid Conference, the principle of land for peace,
UNSCRs 242, 338 and 1397, agreements previously
reached by the parties, and the initiative of Saudi Crown
Prince Abdullah -- endorsed by the Beirut Arab League
Summit -- calling for acceptance of Israel as a neighbor
living in peace and security, in the context of a
comprehensive settlement. This initiative is a vital element
of international efforts to promote a comprehensive peace
on all tracks, including the Syrian-Israeli and
The Quartet will meet regularly at senior levels to evaluate
the parties' performance on implementation of the plan. In
each phase, the parties are expected to perform their
obligations in parallel, unless otherwise indicated.
ENDING TERROR AND VIOLENCE,
NORMALIZING PALESTINIAN LIFE, AND
BUILDING PALESTINIAN INSTITUTIONS --
PRESENT TO MAY 2003
In Phase I, the Palestinians immediately undertake an
unconditional cessation of violence according to the steps
outlined below; such action should be accompanied by
supportive measures undertaken by Israel. Palestinians
and Israelis resume security cooperation based on the
Tenet work plan to end violence, terrorism, and
incitement through restructured and effective Palestinian
security services. Palestinians undertake comprehensive
political reform in preparation for statehood, including
drafting a Palestinian constitution, and free, fair and open
elections upon the basis of those measures. Israel takes all
necessary steps to help normalize Palestinian life. Israel
withdraws from Palestinian areas occupied from
September 28, 2000 and the two sides restore the status
quo that existed at that time, as security performance and
cooperation progress. Israel also freezes all settlement
activity, consistent with the Mitchell report.
At the outset of Phase I:
Palestinian leadership issues unequivocal statement
reiterating Israel's right to exist in peace and security and
calling for an immediate and unconditional ceasefire to
end armed activity and all acts of violence against Israelis
anywhere. All official Palestinian institutions end
incitement against Israel.
Israeli leadership issues unequivocal statement affirming
its commitment to the two-state vision of an independent,
viable, sovereign Palestinian state living in peace and
security alongside Israel, as expressed by President Bush,
and calling for an immediate end to violence against
Palestinians everywhere. All official Israeli institutions end
incitement against Palestinians.
Palestinians declare an unequivocal end to violence and
terrorism and undertake visible efforts on the ground to
arrest, disrupt, and restrain individuals and groups
conducting and planning violent attacks on Israelis
Rebuilt and refocused Palestinian Authority security
apparatus begins sustained, targeted, and effective
operations aimed at confronting all those engaged in terror
and dismantlement of terrorist capabilities and
infrastructure. This includes commencing confiscation of
illegal weapons and consolidation of security authority,
free of association with terror and corruption.
GOI takes no actions undermining trust, including
deportations, attacks on civilians; confiscation and/or
demolition of Palestinian homes and property, as a
punitive measure or to facilitate Israeli construction;
destruction of Palestinian institutions and infrastructure;
and other measures specified in the Tenet work plan.
Relying on existing mechanisms and on-the-ground
resources, Quartet representatives begin informal
monitoring and consult with the parties on establishment
of a formal monitoring mechanism and its implementation.
Implementation, as previously agreed, of U.S. rebuilding,
training and resumed security cooperation plan in
collaboration with outside oversight board
(U.S.-Egypt-Jordan). Quartet support for efforts to
achieve a lasting, comprehensive cease-fire.
All Palestinian security organizations are consolidated
into three services reporting to an empowered Interior
Restructured/retrained Palestinian security forces and
IDF counterparts progressively resume security
cooperation and other undertakings in implementation of
the Tenet work plan, including regular senior-level
meetings, with the participation of U.S. security officials.
Arab states cut off public and private funding and all
other forms of support for groups supporting and engaging
in violence and terror.
All donors providing budgetary support for the
Palestinians channel these funds through the Palestinian
Ministry of Finance's Single Treasury Account.
As comprehensive security performance moves forward,
IDF withdraws progressively from areas occupied since
September 28, 2000 and the two sides restore the status
quo that existed prior to September 28, 2000. Palestinian
security forces redeploy to areas vacated by IDF.
Immediate action on credible process to produce draft
constitution for Palestinian statehood. As rapidly as
possible, constitutional committee circulates draft
Palestinian constitution, based on strong parliamentary
democracy and cabinet with empowered prime minister,
for public comment/debate. Constitutional committee
proposes draft document for submission after elections for
approval by appropriate Palestinian institutions.
Appointment of interim prime minister or cabinet with
empowered executive authority/decision-making body.
GOI fully facilitates travel of Palestinian officials for
PLC and Cabinet sessions, internationally supervised
security retraining, electoral and other reform activity, and
other supportive measures related to the reform efforts.
Continued appointment of Palestinian ministers
empowered to undertake fundamental reform. Completion
of further steps to achieve genuine separation of powers,
including any necessary Palestinian legal reforms for this
Establishment of independent Palestinian election
commission. PLC reviews and revises election law.
Palestinian performance on judicial, administrative, and
economic benchmarks, as established by the International
Task Force on Palestinian Reform.
As early as possible, and based upon the above measures
and in the context of open debate and transparent
candidate selection/electoral campaign based on a free,
multi-party process, Palestinians hold free, open, and fair
GOI facilitates Task Force election assistance,
registration of voters, movement of candidates and voting
officials. Support for NGOs involved in the election
GOI reopens Palestinian Chamber of Commerce and
other closed Palestinian institutions in East Jerusalem
based on a commitment that these institutions operate
strictly in accordance with prior agreements between the
Israel takes measures to improve the humanitarian
situation. Israel and Palestinians implement in full all
recommendations of the Bertini report to improve
humanitarian conditions, lifting curfews and easing
restrictions on movement of persons and goods, and
allowing full, safe, and unfettered access of international
and humanitarian personnel.
AHLC reviews the humanitarian situation and prospects
for economic development in the West Bank and Gaza
and launches a major donor assistance effort, including to
the reform effort.
GOI and PA continue revenue clearance process and
transfer of funds, including arrears, in accordance with
agreed, transparent monitoring mechanism.
Continued donor support, including increased funding
through PVOs/NGOs, for people to people programs,
private sector development and civil society initiatives.
GOI immediately dismantles settlement outposts erected
since March 2001.
Consistent with the Mitchell Report, GOI freezes all
settlement activity (including natural growth of
PHASE II: TRANSITION
JUNE 2003-DECEMBER 2003
In the second phase, efforts are focused on the option of
creating an independent Palestinian state with provisional
borders and attributes of sovereignty, based on the new
constitution, as a way station to a permanent status
settlement. As has been noted, this goal can be achieved
when the Palestinian people have a leadership acting
decisively against terror, willing and able to build a
practicing democracy based on tolerance and liberty. With
such a leadership, reformed civil institutions and security
structures, the Palestinians will have the active support of
the Quartet and the broader international community in
establishing an independent, viable, state.
Progress into Phase II will be based upon the consensus
judgment of the Quartet of whether conditions are
appropriate to proceed, taking into account performance
of both parties. Furthering and sustaining efforts to
normalize Palestinian lives and build Palestinian
institutions, Phase II starts after Palestinian elections and
ends with possible creation of an independent Palestinian
state with provisional borders in 2003. Its primary goals
are continued comprehensive security performance and
effective security cooperation, continued normalization of
Palestinian life and institution-building, further building on
and sustaining of the goals outlined in Phase I, ratification
of a democratic Palestinian constitution, formal
establishment of office of prime minister, consolidation of
political reform, and the creation of a Palestinian state
with provisional borders.
Convened by the
Quartet, in consultation with the parties, immediately after
the successful conclusion of Palestinian elections, to
support Palestinian economic recovery and launch a
process, leading to establishment of an independent
Palestinian state with provisional borders.
Such a meeting would be inclusive, based on the goal of
a comprehensive Middle East peace (including between
Israel and Syria, and Israel and Lebanon), and based on
the principles described in the preamble to this document.
Arab states restore pre-intifada links to Israel (trade
Revival of multilateral engagement on issues including
regional water resources, environment, economic
development, refugees, and arms control issues.
New constitution for democratic, independent Palestinian
state is finalized and approved by appropriate Palestinian
institutions. Further elections, if required, should follow
approval of the new constitution.
Empowered reform cabinet with office of prime minister
formally established, consistent with draft constitution.
Continued comprehensive security performance,
including effective security cooperation on the bases laid
out in Phase I.
Creation of an independent Palestinian state with
provisional borders through a process of Israeli-Palestinian
engagement, launched by the international conference. As
part of this process, implementation of prior agreements,
to enhance maximum territorial contiguity, including
further action on settlements in conjunction with
establishment of a Palestinian state with provisional
Enhanced international role in monitoring transition, with
the active, sustained, and operational support of the
Quartet members promote international recognition of
Palestinian state, including possible UN membership.
PERMANENT STATUS AGREEMENT
AND END OF THE ISRAELI-PALESTINIAN
Progress into Phase III, based on consensus judgment of
Quartet, and taking into account actions of both parties
and Quartet monitoring. Phase III objectives are
consolidation of reform and stabilization of Palestinian
institutions, sustained, effective Palestinian security
performance, and Israeli-Palestinian negotiations aimed at
a permanent status agreement in 2005.
SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE:
Convened by Quartet, in consultation with the parties, at
beginning of 2004 to endorse agreement reached on an
independent Palestinian state with provisional borders and
formally to launch a process with the active, sustained,
and operational support of the Quartet, leading to a final,
permanent status resolution in 2005, including on borders,
Jerusalem, refugees, settlements; and, to support progress
toward a comprehensive Middle East settlement between
Israel and Lebanon and Israel and Syria, to be achieved
as soon as possible.
Continued comprehensive, effective progress on the
reform agenda laid out by the Task Force in preparation
for final status agreement.
Continued sustained and effective security performance,
and sustained, effective security cooperation on the bases
laid out in Phase I.
International efforts to facilitate reform and stabilize
Palestinian institutions and the Palestinian economy, in
preparation for final status agreement.
Parties reach final and comprehensive permanent status
agreement that ends the Israel-Palestinian conflict in
2005, through a settlement negotiated between the parties
based on UNSCR 242, 338, and 1397, that ends the
occupation that began in 1967, and includes an agreed,
just, fair, and realistic solution to the refugee issue, and a
negotiated resolution on the status of Jerusalem that takes
into account the political and religious concerns of both
sides, and protects the religious interests of Jews,
Christians, and Muslims worldwide, and fulfills the vision
of two states, Israel and sovereign, independent,
democratic and viable Palestine, living side-by-side in
peace and security.
Arab state acceptance of full normal relations with Israel
and security for all the states of the region in the context
of a comprehensive Arab-Israeli peace.
The Mitchell Report
(May 4, 2001)
This is the text of the report submitted by the investigatory committee set up to look into the
cause of violence that began in mid-2000. It is named after the chairman of the committee,
former U.S. Senator George Mitchell. The Israelis and Palestinians were given until May 15
to respond to the report.
On October 17, 2000, at the conclusion of the Middle East Peace Summit at Sharm el-Sheikh,
Egypt, the President of the United States spoke on behalf of the participants (the government of
Israel, the Palestinian Authority, the governments of Egypt, Jordan, and the United States, the
United Nations, and the European Union). Among other things, the President stated that:
The United States will develop with the Israelis and Palestinians, as well as in consultation with the
United States Secretary General, a committee of fact-finding on the events of the past several
weeks and how to prevent their recurrence...
On November 7, 2000, following consultations with the other participants, the president asked us
to serve on what has come to be known as the Sharm el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee...
After our first meeting, held before we visited the region, we urged an end to all violence. Our
meetings and our observations during our subsequent visits to the region have intensified our
convictions in this regard. It will only make them worse. Death and destruction will not bring
peace, but will deepen the hatred and harden the resolve on both sides. There is only one way to
bring peace, justice and security in the Middle East, and that is through negotiation.
Despite their long history and close proximity, some Israelis and Palestinians seem not to fully
appreciate each other's concerns. Some Israelis appear not to comprehend the humiliation and
frustration that Palestinians must endure every day as a result of living with the continuing effects
of occupation, sustained by the presence of Israeli military forces and settlements in their midst, or
the determination of the Palestinians to achieve independence and genuine self-determination.
Some Palestinians appear not to comprehend the extent to which terrorism creates fear among
the Israeli people and undermines their belief in the possibility of co-existence, or the
determination of the GOI to do whatever is necessary to protect its people.
Fear, hate, anger, and frustration have risen on both sides. The greatest danger of all that the
culture of peace, nurtured over the past decade is being shattered. In its place there is a growing
sense of futility and despair, and a growing resort to violence.
Two proud people share a land and a destiny. Their competing claims and religious differences
have led to a grinding, demoralizing, dehumanizing conflict. They can continue in conflict or they
can negotiate to find a way to live side-by-side in peace.
So much has been achieved. So much is at risk. If the parties are to succeed in completing their
journey to their common destination, agreed commitments must be implemented, international law
respected, and human rights protected. We encourage them to return to negotiation, however
difficult. It is the only path to peace, justice and security.
The violence has not ended (since the Sharm el-Sheikh summit). It has worsened. Thus the
overriding concern of those in the region with whom we spoke is to end the violence and to return
to the process of shaping a sustainable peace.
Their concern must be ours. If our report is to have effect, it must deal with the situation that
exists, which is different from that envisaged by the summit participants. In this report, we will try
to answer the questions assigned to us by the Sharm el-Sheikh summit: What happened? Why did
In light of the current situation, however, we must elaborate on the third part of our mandate:
How can the recurrence of violence be prevented? The relevance and impact of our work, in the
end, will be measured by the recommendations we make concerning the following:
· Ending the Violence
· Rebuilding Confidence
· Resuming Negotiations
We are not a tribunal. We complied with the request that we do not determine the guilt or
innocence of individuals or of the parties…
In late September 2000, Israeli, Palestinian, and other officials received reports that Member of
the Knesset (now Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon was planning a visit to the Haram
al-Sharif/Temple Mount in Jerusalem. Palestinian and U.S. officials urged then Prime Minister
Ehud Barak to prohibit the visit. Mr. Barak told us that he believed the visit was intended to be an
internal political act directed against him by a political opponent, and he declined to prohibit it.
Mr. Sharon made the visit on September 28 accompanied by over 1,000 Israeli police officers.
Although Israelis viewed the visit in an internal political context, Palestinians saw it as highly
provocative to them. On the following day, in the same place, a large number of unarmed
Palestinian demonstrators and a large Israeli police contingent confronted each other. According
to the U.S. Department of State, "Palestinians held large demonstrations and threw stones at
police in the vicinity of the Western Wall. Police used rubber-coated metal bullets and live
ammunition to disperse the demonstrators, killing 4 persons and injuring about 200." According
to the GOI, 14 policemen were injured.
Similar demonstrations took place over the following several days. Thus began what has become
known as the "Al-Aqsa Intifada" (Al-Aqsa being a mosque at the Haram al- Sharif/Temple
The GOI asserts that the immediate catalyst for the violence was the breakdown of the Camp
David negotiations on July 25, 2000 and the "widespread appreciation in the international
community of Palestinian responsibility for the impasse." In this view, Palestinian violence was
planned by the PA leadership, and was aimed at "provoking and incurring Palestinian casualties
as a means of regaining the diplomatic initiative."
The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) denies the allegation that the Intifada was planned.
It claims, however, that "Camp David represented nothing less than an attempt by Israel to
extend the force it exercises on the ground to negotiations."
From the perspective of the PLO, Israel responded to the disturbances with excessive and illegal
use of deadly force against demonstrators; behavior which, in the PLO's view, reflected Israel's
contempt for the lives and safety of Palestinians. For Palestinians, the widely seen images of
Muhammad al Durra in Gaza on September 30, shot as he huddled behind his father, reinforced
From the perspective of the GOI, the demonstrations were organized and directed by the
Palestinian leadership to create sympathy for their cause around the world by provoking Israeli
security forces to fire upon demonstrators, especially young people. For Israelis, the lynching of
two military reservists, First Sgt. Vadim Novesche and First Cpl. Yosef Avrahani, in Ramallah on
October 12, reflected a deep-seated Palestinian hatred of Israel and Jews.
What began as a series of confrontations between Palestinian demonstrators and Israeli security
forces, which resulted in the GOI's initial restrictions of the movement of people and goods in the
West Bank and Gaza Strip (closures), has since evolved into a wider array of violent actions and
In their submissions, the parties traded allegations about the motivation and degree of control
exercised by the other. However, we were provided with no persuasive evidence that the Sharon
visit was anything other than an internal political act; neither were we provided with persuasive
evidence that the PA planned the uprising.
Accordingly, we have no basis on which to conclude that there was a deliberate plan by the PA
to initiate a campaign of violence at the first opportunity; or to conclude that there was a
delilberate plan by the GOI to respond with lethal force.
However, there is also no evidence on which to conclude that the PA made a consistent effort to
contain the demonstrations and control the violence once it began; or that the GOI made a
consistent effort to use non-lethal means to control demonstrations of unarmed Palestinians. Amid
rising anger, fear, and mistrust, each side assumed the worst about the other and acted
The Sharon visit did not cause the "Al-Aqsa Intifada." But it was poorly timed and the
provocative effect should have been foreseen; indeed, it was foreseen by those who urged that
the visit be prohibited. More significant were the events that followed: The decision of the Israeli
police on September 29 to use lethal means against the Palestinian demonstrators; and the
subsequent failure, as noted above, of either party to exercise restraint.
WHY DID IT HAPPEN?
The roots of the current violence extend much deeper than an inconclusive summit conference.
Both sides have made clear a profound disillusionment with the behavior of the other in failing to
meet the expectations arising from the peace process.
Divergent Expectations: We are struck by the divergent expectations expressed by the parties
in relating to the implementation of the Oslo process. Results achieved from this process were
unthinkable less than 10 years ago. During the latest round of negotiations, the parties were closer
to a permanent settlement than ever before.
Nonetheless, Palestinians and Israeli alike told us that the premise on which the Oslo process is
based – that tackling the hard "permanent status" issues be deferred to the end of the process –
has gradually come under serious pressure.
The GOI has placed primacy on moving toward a Permanent Status Agreement in a nonviolent
atmosphere, consistent with commitments contained in the agreements between the parties.
The PLO view is that delays in the process have been the result of an Israeli attempt to prolong
and solidify the occupation… "In sum, Israel's proposals at Camp David provided for Israel's
annexation of the best Palestinian lands, the perpetuation of Israeli control over East Jerusalem, a
continued military presence on Palestinian territory, Israeli control over Palestinian natural
resources, airspace and borders, and the return of fewer than 1% of refugees to their homes."
Both sides see the lack of full compliance with agreements reached since the opening of the peace
process as evidence of a lack of good faith. This conclusion led to an erosion of trust even before
the permanent status negotiations began.
Divergent Perspectives: During the last seven months, these views have hardened into
divergent realities. Each side views the other as having acted in bad faith; as having turned the
optimism of Oslo into suffering and grief of victims and their loved ones. In their statements and
actions, each side demonstrates a perspective that fails to recognize any truth in the perspective of
The Palestinian Perspective: For the Palestinian side, "Madrid" and "Oslo" heralded the
prospect of a State, and guaranteed an end to the occupation and a resolution of outstanding
matters within an agreed time. Palestinians are genuinely angry at the continued growth of
settlements and at their daily experiences of humiliation and disruption as a result of Israel's
presence in the Palestinian territories. Palestinians see settlers and settlements in their midst not
only as violating the spirit of the Oslo process, but also as application of force in the form of
Israel's overwhelming military superiority.
The PLO also claims that the GOI has failed to comply with other commitments, such as the
further withdrawal from the West Bank and the release of Palestinian prisoners. In addition,
Palestinians expressed frustration with the impasse over refugees and the deteriorating economic
circumstances in the West Bank and Gaza Strip.
The Israeli Perspective: From the GOI perspective, the expansion of settlement activity and
the taking of measures to facilitate the convenience and safety of settlers do not prejudice the
outcome of permanent status negotiations…
Indeed, Israelis point out that at the Camp David summit and during subsequent talks, the GOI
offered to make significant concessions with respect to the settlements in the context of an overall
Security, however, is the key GOI concern. The GOI maintains that the PLO has breached its
solemn commitments by continuing the use of violence in the pursuit of political objectives…
According to the GOI, the Palestinian failure takes on several forms: Institutionalized anti-Israel,
anti-Jewish incitement; the release from detention of terrorists; the failure to control illegal
weapons; and the actual conduct of violent operations… The GOI maintains that the PLO has
significantly violated its renunciation of terrorism and other acts of violence, thereby significantly
eroding trust between the parties.
END THE VIOLENCE
For Israelis and Palestinians alike the experience of the past seven months has been intensely
personal. We were touched by their stories. Israeli and Palestinian families used virtually the
same words to describe their grief.
With widespread violence, both sides have resorted to portrayals of each other in hostile
stereotypes. This cycle cannot be easily broken. Without considerable determination and
readiness to compromise, the rebuilding of trust will be impossible.
Cessation of Violence: Since 1991, the parties have consistently committed themselves, in all
their agreements, to the path of nonviolence. To stop the violence now, the PA and GOI need not
"reinvent the wheel." Rather they should take immediate steps to end the violence, reaffirm their
mutual commitments, and resume negotiations.
Resumption of Security Cooperation: Palestinian security officials told us that it would take
some time for the PA to reassert full control over armed elements nominally under its command
and to exert decisive influence over other armed elements operating in Palestinian area. Israeli
security officials have not disputed these assertions. What is important is that the PA make an
all-out effort to enforce a complete cessation of violence and that it be clearly seen by the GOI as
doing so. The GOI must likewise exercise a 100 percent effort to ensure that potential friction
points, where Palestinians come into contact with armed Israelis, do not become stages for
The collapse of the security cooperation in early October reflected the belief by each party that
the other had committed itself to a violent course of action. If parties wish to attain the standard of
100 percent effort to prevent violence, the immediate resumption of security cooperation is
The historic handshake between Chairman Arafat and the late Prime Minister Rabin at the White
House in September 1993 symbolized the expectation of both parties that the door to the
peaceful resolution of differences had been opened. Despite the current violence and mutual loss
of trust, both communities have repeatedly expressed a desire for peace. Channeling this desire
into substantive progress has proved difficult. The restoration of trust is essential, and the parties
should take affirmative steps to this end. Given the high level of hostility and mistrust, the timing
and sequence of these steps are obviously crucial. This can be decided only by the parties. We
urge them to begin the process of decision immediately.
Terrorism: In September 1999 Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum, the parties pledged to take
action against "any threat or act of terrorism, violence, or incitement."
Terrorism involves the deliberate killing and injuring of randomly selected noncombatants for
political ends. It seeks to promote a political outcome by spreading terror and demoralization
throughout a population.
In its official submissions and briefings, the GOI has accused the PA of supporting terrorism by
releasing incarcerated terrorists, by allowing PA security personnel to abet, and in some cases to
conduct terrorist operations, and by terminating security cooperation the GOI. The PA vigorously
denies the accusations. But Israelis hold the view that the PA's leadership has made no real effort
to prevent anti-Israeli terrorism. The belief that is, in and of itself, it is a major obstacle to the
rebuilding of confidence.
We believe that the PA has a responsibility to help rebuild confidence by making it clear to both
communities that terrorism is reprehensible and unacceptable, and by taking all measures to
prevent terrorist operations and to punish perpetrators. This effort should include immediate steps
to apprehend and incarcerate terrorists operating within the PA's jurisdiction.
Settlements: The GOI also has a responsibility to help rebuild confidence. A cessation of
Palestinian-Israeli violence will be particularly hard to sustain unless the GOI freezes all settlement
construction activity. Settlement activities must not be allowed to undermine the restoration of
calm and the resumption of negotiations.
On each of our two visits to the region, there were Israeli announcements regarding expansion of
settlements, and it was almost always the first issue raised by Palestinians with whom we met. The
GOI describes its policy as prohibiting new settlements but permitting expansion of existing
settlements to accommodate "natural growth." Palestinians contend that there is no distinction
between "new" and "expanded" settlements; and that, except for a brief freeze during the tenure of
Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin, there has been a continuing, aggressive effort by Israel to increase
the number and size of settlements.
Reducing Tension: We were told by both Palestinians and Israelis that emotions generated by
the many recent deaths and funerals have fueled additional confrontations, and, in effect,
maintained the cycle of violence. Both sides must make clear that violent demonstrations will not
be tolerated. We can and do urge that both sides exhibit a greater respect for human life when
demonstrators confront security personnel.
Actions and Responses: For the first three months of the current uprising, most incidents did
not involve Palestinian use of firearms and explosives… Altogether, nearly 500 people were
killed and over 10,000 injured over the past seven months; the overwhelming majority in both
categories were Palestinian.
Israel's characterization of the conflict, as "armed conflict short of war," does not adequately
describe the variety of incidents reported since late September 2000. Moreover, by thus defining
the conflict, the IDF has suspended its policy of mandating investigations by the Department of
Military Police Investigations whenever a Palestinian in the territories dies at the hands of an IDF
soldier in an incident not involving terrorism.
Controversy has arisen between the parties over what Israel calls "the targeting of individual
enemy combatants." The PLO describes these actions as "extra-judicial" that is "in clear violation
of Article 32 of the Fourth Geneva Convention…." The GOI states that, "whatever action Israel
has taken has been taken firmly within the bounds of the relevant and accepted principles relating
to the conduct of hostilities."
We are deeply concerned about the public safety implications of exchanges of fire between
populated areas. Palestinian gunmen have directed small arms fire at Israeli settlements and at
nearby IDF positions from within or adjacent to civilian dwellings in Palestinian areas, thus
endangering innocent Israeli and Palestinian civilians alike. We condemn the positioning of gunmen
within or near civilian dwellings… We urge that such provocations cease and that the IDF
exercise maximum restraint in its responses if they do occur. Inappropriate or excessive uses of
force often lead to escalation.
On the Palestinian side there are disturbing ambiguities in the basic areas of responsibility and
accountability. We urge the PA to take all necessary steps to establish a clear and unchallenged
chain of command for armed personnel operating under its authority.
Incitement: In their submissions and briefings to the Committee, both sides expressed concerns
about hateful language and images emanating from the other… We call on the parties to renew
their formal commitments to foster mutual understanding and tolerance and to abstain from
incitement and hostile propaganda.
Economic and Social Impact of Violence: Further restrictions on the movement of people and
goods have been imposed by Israel on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. These closures take
the three forms: Those which restrict movement between the Palestinian areas and Israel; those
which restrict movement within the Palestinian areas; and those which restrict movement from the
Palestinian areas to foreign countries. These measures have disrupted the lives of hundreds of
thousands of Palestinians.
Of particular concern to the PA has been the destruction by Israeli security forces and settlers of
tens of thousands of olive and fruit trees and other agricultural property. The closures have also
had other adverse effects.
We acknowledge Israel's security concerns. We believe, however, that the GOI should lift
closures, transfer to the PA all revenues owed, and permit Palestinians who have been employed
in Israel to return to their jobs. Closure policies play into the hands of extremists seeking to
expand their constituencies and thereby contribute to escalation. The PA should resume
cooperation with Israeli security agencies to ensure that Palestinian workers employed within
Israel are fully vetted and free of connections to terrorist organizations.
Holy Places: It is particularly regrettable that the places such as the Temple Mount/Haram
al-Sharif in Jerusalem, Joseph's Tomb in Nablus, and Rachel's Tomb in Bethlehem have been the
scenes of violence, death and injury. These are places of peace, prayer and reflection which must
be accessible to all believers. Places deemed holy by Muslims, Jews, and Christians merit
respect, protection and preservation.
International Force: One of the most controversial subjects raised during our inquiry was the
issue of deploying an international force to the Palestinian areas. The PA is strongly in favor of
having such a force to protect Palestinian civilians and their property… The GOI is just as
adamantly opposed to an "international protection force," believing it would prove unresponsive
to Israeli security concerns and interfere with bilateral negotiations to settle the conflict. We
believe that to be effective such a force would need the support of both parties.
Israeli leaders do not wish to be perceived as "rewarding violence." Palestinian leaders do not
wish to be perceived as " rewarding occupation." We appreciate the political constraints on
leaders of both sides. Nevertheless, if the cycle of violence is to be broken and the search for
peace resumed, there needs to be a new bilateral relationship incorporating both security
cooperation and negotiations.
We cannot prescribe to the parties how best to pursue their political objectives. Yet the
construction of a new bilateral relationship solidifying and transcending an agreed cessation of
violence requires intelligent risk-taking. It requires, in the first instance, that each party again be
willing to regard the other as a partner.
To define a starting point is for the parties to decide. Both parties have stated that they remain
committed to their mutual agreements and undertakings. It is time to explore further
implementation. The parties should declare their intention to meet on this basis, in order to resume
full and meaningful negotiations, in the spirit of their undertakings at Sharm el-Sheikh in 1999 and
The GOI and the PA must act swiftly and decisively to halt the violence. Their immediate
objectives then should be to rebuild confidence and resume negotiations.
END THE VIOLENCE
· The GOI and the PA should reaffirm their commitment to existing agreements and undertakings
and should immediately implement an unconditional cessation of violence.
· The GOI and PA should immediately resume security cooperation.
Effective bilateral cooperation aimed at preventing violence will encourage the resumption of
negotiations… We believe that the security cooperation cannot long be sustained if meaningful
negotiations are unreasonably deferred, if security measures "on the ground" are seen as hostile,
or if steps are taken that are perceived as provocative or as prejudicing the outcome of
· The PA and GOI should work together to establish a meaningful "cooling off period" and
implement additional confidence building measures.
· The PA and GOI should resume their efforts to identify, condemn and discourage incitement in
all its forms.
· The PA should make clear through concrete action to Palestinians and Israelis alike that
terrorism is reprehensible and unacceptable, and that the PA will make a 100 percent effort to
prevent terrorist operations and to punish perpetrators. This effort should include immediate steps
to apprehend and incarcerate terrorists operating within the PA's jurisdiction.
· The GOI should freeze all settlement activity, including the "natural growth" of existing
settlements. The kind of security cooperation desired by the GOI cannot for long co-exist with
* The GOI should give careful consideration to whether settlements which are focal points for
substantial friction are valuable bargaining chips for future negotiations or provocations likely to
preclude the onset of productive talks.
* The GOI may wish to make it clear to the PA that a future peace would pose no threat to the
territorial contiguity of a Palestinian State to be established in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip.
· The IDF should consider withdrawing to positions held before September 28, 2000 which will
reduce the number of friction points and the potential for violent confrontations.
· The GOI should ensure that the IDF adopt and enforce policies and procedures encouraging
non-lethal responses to unarmed demonstrators, with a view to minimizing casualties and friction
between the two communities.
· The GOI should lift closures, transfer to the PA all tax revenues owed, and permit Palestinians
who had been employed in Israel to return to their jobs; and should ensure that security forces
and settlers refrain from the destruction of homes and roads, as well as trees and other agricultural
property in Palestinian areas.
· The PA should renew cooperation with Israeli security agencies to ensure, to the maximum
extent possible, that Palestinian workers employed within Israel are fully vetted and free of
connections to organizations and individuals engaged in terrorism.
· The PA should prevent gunmen from using Palestinian populated areas to fire upon Israeli
populated areas and IDF positions. This tactic places civilians on both sides at unnecessary risk.
· The GOI and IDF should adopt and enforce policies and procedures designed to ensure that the
response to any gunfire emanating from Palestinian civilians, bearing in mind that it is probably the
objective of the gunmen to elicit an excessive IDF response.
· We reiterate our belief that a 100 percent effort to stop the violence, an immediate resumption
of security cooperation and an exchange of confidence building measures are all important for the
resumption of negotiations. Yet none of these steps will long be sustained absent a return to
It is not within our mandate to prescribe the venue, the basis or the agenda of negotiations.
However, in order to provide an effective political context for practical cooperation between the
parties, negotiations must not be unreasonably deferred and they must, in our view, manifest a
spirit of compromise, reconciliation and partnership, notwithstanding the events of the past seven
George J. Mitchell, Chairman
Former member and Majority Leader of the United States Senate
9th President of the Republic of Turkey
Minister of Foreign Affairs of Norway
Warren B. Rudman
Former Member of the United States Senate
High European Representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy, European Union
Source: Ha'aretz, (May 6, 2001)
The Tenet Cease-Fire Plan
(June 10, 2001)
CIA Director George Tenet traveled to the Middle East in an effort to solidify a cease-fire
between Israel and the Palestinian Authority and lay the groundwork for a resumption of
peace talks. The following is the unofficial text (it has not officially been made public) of the
The security organizations of the Government of Israel (GOI) and of the Palestinian Authority (PA)
reaffirm their commitment to the security agreements forged at Sharm al-Sheikh in October 2000
embedded in the Mitchell Report of April 2001.
The operational premise of the workplan is that the two sides are committed to a mutual,
comprehensive cease-fire, applying to all violent activities, in accordance with the public
declaration of both leaders. In addition, the joint security committee referenced in this workplan
will resolve issues that may arise during the implementation of this workplan.
The security organizations of the GOI and PA agree to initiate the following specific, concrete,
and realistic security steps immediately to reestablish security cooperation and the situation on the
ground as they existed prior to 28 September.
1. The GOI and the PA will immediately resume security cooperation.
* A senior-level meeting of Israeli, Palestinian, and US security officials will be held immediately
and will reconvene at least once a week, with mandatory participation by designated senior
* Israeli-Palestinian DCOs will be reinvigorated. They will carry out their daily activities, to the
maximum extent possible, according to the standards established prior to 28 September 2000.
As soon as the security situation permits, barriers to effective cooperation – which include the
erection of walls between the Israeli and Palestinian sides – will be eliminated and joint
Israeli-Palestinian patrols will be reinitiated.
* US-supplied video conferencing systems will be provided to senior-level Israeli and Palestinian
officials to facilitate frequent dialogue and security cooperation.
2. Both sides will take immediate measures to enforce strict adherence to the declared cease-fire
and to stabilize the security environment.
* Specific procedures will be developed by the senior-level security committee to ensure the
secure movement of GOI and PA security personnel traveling in areas outside their respective
control, in accordance with existing agreements.
* Israel will not conduct attacks of any kind against the Palestinian Authority Ra'is facilities: the
headquarters of Palestinian security, intelligence, and police organization; or prisons in the West
Bank and Gaza.
* The PA will move immediately to apprehend, question, and incarcerate terrorists in the West
Bank and Gaza and will provide the security committee the names of those arrested as soon as
they are apprehended, as well as a readout of actions taken.
* Israel will release all Palestinians arrested in security sweeps who have no association with
* In keeping with its unilateral cease-fire declaration, the PA will stop any Palestinian security
officials from inciting, aiding, abetting, or conducting attacks against Israeli targets, including
* In keeping with Israel's unilateral cease-fire declaration, Israeli forces will not conduct
"proactive" security operations in areas under the control of the PA or attack against innocent
* The GOI will re-institute military police investigations into Palestinian deaths resulting from IDF
actions in the West Bank and Gaza in incidents not involving terrorism.
3. Palestinian and Israeli security officials will use the security committee to provide each other, as
well as designated US officials, terrorist threat information, including information on known or
suspected terrorist operation in – or moving to – areas under the other's control.
* Legitimate terrorist and threat information will be acted upon immediately, with follow-up
actions and results reported to the security committee.
* The PA will undertake preemptive operations against terrorists, terrorist safehouses, arms
depots, and mortar factories. The PA will provide regular progress reports of these actions to the
* Israeli authorities will take action against Israeli citizens inciting, carrying out, or planning to
carry out violence against Palestinians, with progress reports on these activities provided to the
4. The PA and GOI will move aggressively to prevent individuals and groups from using areas
under their respective control to carry out acts of violence. In addition, both sides will take steps
to ensure that areas under their control will not be used to launch attacks against the other side
nor be used as refuge after attacks are staged.
* The security committee will identify key flash points, and each side will inform the other of the
names of senior security personnel responsible for each flash point.
* Joint Standard Operating Procedures (SOP's) will be developed for each flash point. These
SOP's will address how the two sides handle and respond to security incidents; the mechanisms
for emergency contact; and the procedures to deescalate security crises.
* Palestinian and Israeli security officials will identify and agree to the practical measures needed
to enforce "no demonstration zones" and "buffer zones" around flash points to reduce
opportunities for confrontation. Both sides will adopt all necessary measures to prevent riots and
to control demonstration, particularly in flash point areas.
* Palestinian and Israeli security officials will make a concerted effort to locate and confiscate
illegal weapons, including mortars, rockets, and explosives, in areas under their respective control
In addition, intensive efforts will be made to prevent smuggling and illegal production of weapons.
Each side will inform the security committee of the status and success of these efforts.
* The Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) will adopt additional non-lethal measures to deal with
Palestinian crowds and demonstrators, and more generally, seek to minimize the danger to lives
and property of Palestinian civilians in responding to violence.
5. The GOI and the PA, through the auspices of the senior-level security committee, will forge –
within one week of the commencement of security committee meetings and resumption of security
cooperation – an agreed-upon schedule to implement the complete redeployment of IDF forces
to positions held before 28 September 2000.
* Demonstrable on-the-ground redeployment will be initiated within the first 48 hours of this
one-week period and will continue while the schedule is being forged.
6. Within one week of the commencement of security committee meetings and resumption of
security cooperation, a specific timeline will be developed for the lifting of interal closures as well
as for the reopening of internal roads, the Allenby Bridge, Gaza Airport, Port of Gaza, and
border crossings. Security checkpoints will be minimized according to legitimate security
requirements and following consultation between the two sides.
* Demonstrable on-the-ground actions on the lifting of the closures will be initiated within the first
48 hours of this one-week period and will continue while the timeline is being developed.
The parties pledge that even if untoward events occur, security cooperation will continue through
the joint security committee.
Source: Ha'aretz, (June 14, 2001)
Second U.S. "Joint Goals" Proposal
(The "Zinni Paper")
Presented March 26, 2002
1. Phase 1 – Immediate – 48 hours
GOI (Government Of Israel) and PA (Palestinian Authority) leaders
make public declarations of cease-fire to their respective populations.
GOI commits to cease "proactive" operations in areas under the
control of the PA, including attacks on PA Ra'is Facilities; and
headquarters of Palestinian Security, Intelligence, and Police
Organizations; or prisons in the West Bank and Gaza Strip unless
responding in self-defense to an imminent terrorist attack.
PA issues clear orders to field commanders to take action to prevent
terrorism or violent attacks, arrest persons involved in ongoing
terrorist activities, ceases PA security forces involvement in inciting
aiding, abetting attacks against all Israeli targets. PA and GOI issue
clear orders to their field commanders and take other measures
necessary to prevent individuals and groups from using areas under
their respective control to carry out acts of violence.
GOI, acting on information made known to the Trilateral Security
Committee, takes action against Israeli citizens inciting, carrying out,
or planning to carry out violence against Palestinians, with progress
reports to the Security Committee.
GOI and PA resume security cooperation through reinvigoration of
DCOs based on the standards existing before September 28, 20000.
GOI and PA share information on terrorists' threats directly and
through the Trilateral Security Committee followed by immediate
actions and reporting of results to the Security Committee. IDF
adopts measures to reduce lethality of rules of engagement.
GOI and PA allow secure movement of security personnel within Gaza
and WB, in accordance with existing agreements.
PA makes public commitment to prevent smuggling, production,
acquisition of illegal weapons, prepares plan for collecting weapons,
preventing smuggling, and closing factories and arresting those
IDF carries out demonstrable redeployment (locations to be notified to
the Trilateral Security Committee).
GOI takes demonstrable action to lift closures (locations to be notified
to the Trilateral Security Committee).
PA assumes security responsibility where it has jurisdiction at
locations where GOI eases security restrictions. GOI takes measures
to facilitate the transfer of these responsibilities.
2. 48 Hours – End of Phase 1 – Trilateral Security Committee
Meeting to Assess Progress (Phase 2: 48 Hours – 1 Week)
PA acts decisively to prevent attacks, enforce cease-fire, including
arrest of activists in breach of cease-fire, action against those who
incite, aid and abet such activities.
GOI and PA act to prevent incitement to violence among their
GOI and PA allow secure movement of security personnel within and
between Gaza and WB, in accordance with existing agreements.
GOI completes withdrawal from Area A, continues removal of internal
closures and redeployment according to agreed schedule, including
removal of permanent roadblocks in Gaza, supervised entry of vehicles
at Mawasi area, removal of IDF positions from Palestinian houses,
continues removal of other checkpoints and earth barriers, further
redeployment of armored vehicles.
PA continues to assume security responsibility at locations where GOI
eases security restrictions. GOI continues to take measures to
facilitate the transfer of these responsibilities.
Trilateral committee identifies "flashpoints," each side designates
senior security personnel responsible for them, develops JSOP for
PA presents comprehensive plan for collection of illegal weapons as
defined in existing agreements including the Israel-Palestinian Interim
Agreement, Annex I, articles IV and XI. PA begins actions in concert
with GOI to prevent smuggling of illegal weapons. PA takes
demonstrable action against weapons and mortar factories, based on
PA information and information developed in conjunction with the GOI.
Each side informs the security committee of the status and success
of these efforts.
GOI takes specified actions to ease economic restrictions and
movement of Palestinian civilians, as detailed in Israeli proposal, p. 6.
GOI identifies Palestinian prisoners, including PA security personnel,
arrested in security sweeps and not involved in terrorist activities.
Begins releasing prisoners in this category.
Trilateral Security Committee using information provided by the
parties, identifies activists involved in planning or carrying out terrorist
activities. PA takes demonstrable actions to arrest individuals on this
GOI re-institutes military police investigations into Palestinian deaths
resulting from IDF actions in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip in
incidents not involving terrorism.
3. 1 Week – End of Phase 2 – Trilateral Security Meeting to
Assess Progress - Phase 3 – 1 Week – 4 Weeks (plus or minus)
(Further Trilateral Security Meetings will be held to assess
interim progress during the course of Phase 3)
Pursuant to agreed schedule, GOI completes redeployment and lifting
of all internal closures to 28 September 2000 positions including
reopening of internal roads, the Allenby bridge, Gaza Airport, Port of
Gaza, and border crossings.
GOI further eases specified civilian restrictions, as detailed in Israeli
PA arrests terrorist activists from names made known to the trilateral
security committee and provides the committee the names of those
arrested, as soon as they are apprehended, as well as summary of
PA takes credible and sustained judicial action ("due process") against
arrested individuals for the purpose of further investigation and
prosecution and punishment of all persons involved in acts of violence
PA continues to undertake preemptive operations against terrorism,
continues implementation of illegal weapons collection plan, and
transfer of collected weapons to a third party, continues actions to
prevent smuggling. Measures include taking demonstrable action
against weapons factories, laboratories, safe-houses, and arms
depots at locations identified by the trilateral security committee,
arrests and prosecutes individuals connected with these locations and
other actions against the support structure of terrorism, including the
financing of terrorist activities and mechanisms for inciting terror.
4. 4 Weeks (plus or minus) – End of Phase 3 – Trilateral Security
Committee Meets to Assess Progress and Decide on Transition
to Next Steps
Road Map to Armageddon
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