or, The Constellations
by Frances Rolleston

Philologos Religious Online Books

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or, the


"Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth in his season?"-Job 33:32



Prophecies corresponding in word or type with the figures and the names GEMINI
Texts where the word or its root is used in this sense in the Hebrew Bible Hebrew Roots
Psa 22:20 Hebrew name, Thaumim, the united twined Exo 26:24 M)t
Zech 6:13
Zech 13:7
Arabic, Al Tauman, the twins, or pair
  Syriac, as the Hebrew
Coptic, Pi Mahi, the united as in brotherhood Zech 11:14 hx)
  — Clusus, or Claustrum Hori, station of the coming wayfaring men Jer 9:2 xr)
Greek, Didumoi, twins. Sept. Song 4:5
Latin, Gemini, twins. Vulg. Gen 25:24; fellow Zech 13:7 M(

Names in the Sign

Jer 23:5 Heb., Propus, the branch, spreading bough Isa 10:33 rp
Jer 33:15 spread Hab 1:8 #p
Gen 3:15   — e Mebsuta, treading under foot Isa 14:19 sb
Psa 16:8 Arab., Wasat, set appointed Gen 4:25 t#
Rev 22:20   — Al Giauza, the palm branch, stem Isa 11:1 (zg
    — g Al Henah, in the foot, hurt, afflicted sorrow Gen 35:18 hn)
Isa 11:1   — Al Dira, the seed (or branch) Gen 3:15 (rz
Zech 3:8 Gr. and Lat., a Castor, bearing an arrow, haste Deut 32:35 #x
Zech 6:12 Gr. and Lat., a Apollo, ruler, or judge Job 31:11
Micah 5:2 Gr. and Lat., b Pollux, bearing a branch, ruler, or judge Deut 32:31 llp
  Gr. and Lat., b Hercules, bearing a branch or club, coming to suffer to suffer Jer 9:1
grief Isa 53:3 lx

First Decan
(Called the HARE)
THE ENEMY, or Serpent

  Heb., Arnebo, the enemy of him that cometh enemies Psa 139:20 r(
Isa 27:1 he that cometh Psa 118:26 )b
Psa 110:1   — Nibal, the mad fool 1 Sam 25:25 lbn
  — Rakis, the bound (Arab., with a chain) Exo 28:28 skr
Rev 20   — Sugia, the deceiver Job 12:16 g#
  Arab., Arnebeth, the hare, enemy of what cometh pluck Psa 80:12 hr)
Lat., Lepus, the hare, treading under foot Psa 108:13 sb

Second Decan
SIRIUS, The Prince

  (Called the DOG, or wolf) wolf Gen 49:27 b)z
Heb., a Sirius, the prince Isa 9:6 r#
Isa 9:6   — Aschere, who shall come go Prov 4:14 r#)
Isa 32:1
Gen 35:18
Arab., Al Shira Al Jemeniya, the prince, or chief of the right hand Jonah 4:11 Nmy
Acts 5:31 Egyptian name, Seir, the prince (E.V.) Isa 9:6 r#
Psa 110:1 Heb., Abur, the mighty Gen 49:24 rb)
  Arab., Al Habor, the mighty Isa 1:24
  — e Adhara, the glorious (Al Adra, Aludra.) Exo 15:6 rd)
Isa 4:2
Isa 11:10
  — b Mirzam, the prince or ruler Psa 2:2 Nzr
    — Muliphen, the leader, the chief duke Gen 36:15 Pl)
Isa 55:4   — d Wesen, the bright, shining scarlet Josh 2:18 N#

Third Decan
(Called the SECOND DOG)
PROCYON, The Redeemer

Isa 49:26 Heb., a Procyon, the Redeemer redeemed Psa 136 24 qrp
Isa 59:20 Arab., Al Shira, Al Shemeliya, the prince, or chief Dan 12:1 r#
of the left hand
Jonah 4:11 lm#
Micah 5:2   — Al Mirzam, the prince or ruler Psa 2:2 Nzr
    — Al Gomeyra, who completes, perfects Psa 138:8 rmg
Isa 53:12   — b Al Gomeisa, the burthened, loaded, bearing for others Psa 68:19 sm(
  Zech 12:3  

In the First Decan, according to the Persians, there was a serpent, also in the Egyptian zodiac, in the French Egypte. Zeeb, the wolf, in Arabic means coming quickly; in Heb., this shall come. In the Persian sphere, the Second Decan was figured as a wolf: one of the Twins had also the head of a wolf in some Oriental zodiacs. Some ancient forms of this sign are said by Hyde to have been two kids (Dupuis, Richer).


Prophecies corresponding in word or type with the figures and the names CANCER
Texts where the word or its root is used in this sense in the Hebrew Bible Hebrew Roots
Gen 49:11
John 10:28
Hebrew name, Sartan, who holds, or binds binding Gen 49:11 rs)
  Arabic, Al Sartan, the same
Syriac, Sartano, the same
Coptic, Klaria, the cattle-folds folds Psa 50:9 )lkm
Num 24:18 Greek, Karkinos, the crab holding,
Eph 1:14 Latin, Cancer, the crab the possession Gen 26:14 hnq
Latin, Cer, encircling, Arab. sense rb

Names in the Sign

Isa 60:6 Heb., Praesepe, the nebula, a multitude, offspring young Deut 22:6 xrp
    Isa 60:6 (p#
Heb. and Arab., a Acubene, the sheltering. hiding-place Isa 32:2 )bx
  —   — Ma'alaph, assembled thousands Psa 144:13 Pl)
Isa 40:11 Arab., Al Himarein, the kids, or lambs Ezra 6:9 rm)
  Gr., Nepa, grasping lifted up Deut 27:5 Pyn
Lat., Asellus Boreas, and Asellus Australis. Vulg. she-ass Gen 49:11 Nt)

First Decan
The Lesser Fold, or Flock

John 10:4,16 Heb., b Kochab, waiting him who cometh   Psa 33:20 hkx
  wait Gen 49:18 hwq
come Ibid 10 )b
Arab., Al Pherkadain, the calves, young. Deut 22:6 (Heb., the
Psa 136:24 qrp
Exo 12:3 hd(
  — Al Gedi, the kid kid Judg 6:19 ydg
  — Al Ruccaba, the pole-star, the turned, or ridden on bkr
Psa 23:3   — Al Kaid, assembled, as in Ursa Major
  Gr. and Lat., a Cynosura, center or base Ezra 3:3 Nk
Gr. and Lat., a Cynosura, of the constellations Mazzaroth Job 38:32 rzn
  —   — Arcas, or Arctos, travelling company Gen 37:25 txr)

Second Decan
The Sheepfold and Sheep

Isa 60:7
Micah 2:12
Heb. name, Ash, the assembled, (Arcturus) Job 9:9 assemble Joel 3:11 #(
  Arab., a Dubheh, herd of animals. Chald. wealth Heb.
Deut 33:25 )bd
  — El Acola, the sheepfold. Psa 95:7, 100:3 Psa 78:70 hlkm
Zech 9:16   — Benet Nash, daughters of the assembly. Joel 3:11 daughters Song 1:5 tnb
Psa 77:20   — Cab'd al Asad, wealth or multitude many Nahum 3:15 dbk
  assembled Gen 49:6 ds
  — Annaish, the assembled, as Ash. Joel 3:11  
Isa 40:11 Heb., b Merach, the flock (Arab., purchased) Jer 10:21 (r
Isa 60:7   — Megrez, separated, as the flock in the fold cut off Psa 31:22 zrg
Jer 23:3   — Phacad, or Phacda, visited, guarded, numbered Zech 10:3 dqp
    — e Mizar, separate Num 6:3 rzn
John 10:16 Heb., e Alioth, the she-goat, or ewe Psa 78:71 hl(
    — i Talita, the lamb Isa 40:11 hl+
Arab., Al Cor, the lamb Deut 32:14 rk
  — El Kaphrah, protected, covered (Heb., redeemed, ransomed) Exo 30:12 rpk
Eze 34:11,12   — Dubheh Lachar, the latter herd, or flock latter Hagg 2:9 rx)
Eze 36:37   — h Al Kaid, the assembled together Gen 13:6 dxy
  Gr., Helike, company of travellers, walking, (Iliad.) companies Job 6:19 Klh
  — Amaza, coming, and going to and fro Gen 8:7 )cy
  — Arctos, travelling company Gen 37:25 txr)
John 10:1   — Calisto, the sheepfold, set or appointed sheepfold Psa 78:70 )lkm
  appointed Gen 4:25 t#
Lat., Ursa, the bear, the strong mighty Job 6:23 Cr(

Third Decan
ARGO, (called the SHIP)

Psa 68:11 Heb., Argo, the company of travellers Gen 37:25 xr)
Psa 2:8   — Sephina, the multitude, nebula? abundance Deut 33:19 (p#
    — Tureis, the possession Num 24:18 #ry
Isa 49:12   — a Canopus, or the possession Gen 26:14 hnq
Isa 60:6   — Canobus, of him who cometh Psa 96:13 )b
    — Asmidiska, the released who travel release Deut 15:9 +m#
run Joel 2:9 q#
Hagg 2:7 Arab., Soheil, the desired asked 1 Sam 1:27 l)#
Isa 4:2   — Subilon, the branch Zech 4:12 lb#
Jer 23:5 Gr. and Lat., Argo, the company of travellers Gen 37:25 xr)
  Job 6:19  

The Scarabaeus is thought to have been the original emblem in Cancer. Sartan, who holds, would well apply to the "sacred beetle" of the Egyptians, who holds its "progeny" fast even in death. The Scarabaeus was placed here in the Persian sphere.

Some of the Arabs called Ursa Major El Naish, the bier, or funeral assembly (Ideler, Hyde, Barnes, &c.). The Christian Arabs called it the funeral of Lazarus, with Mary and Martha walking after it (Hyde, &c.).


AUTHORITIES (continued)

Decan, a part or piece, Heb. and Arab. Daniel 2:45 qd

Decans are divisions of a sign, each occupying about a third. This division is said to have been introduced into Egypt by King Necepsos, about 700 years BC The Decans are here arranged from a work by Albumazer, Flor. Astro., a Latin translation of which is in the Library of the British Museum. Albumazer speaks of them as in the Persian, Egyptian, and Indian spheres. The Persians, he says, understood, but the Indians perverted them with inventions. He describes them from both. Amidst considerable variations, analogies may be traced to the constellations as now figured. Of the Signs and other thirty-six constellations as received in his time, he says, all the names and figures had been transmitted unaltered.

Albumazer, or Abu Masher, lived about the year 800 (AD). He is known as a great Arab physician and astronomer. At that time astronomy was much studied by the Arabs: it had also been cultivated by the Gerbanites, a sect of Arab astronomers, some centuries before the Christian era. Lyell, in his Geology, says of them, "These were evidently great astronomers." Ricciolus, an astronomical writer AD 1598, says that it appears from Arab astronomy, that it was as old as Adam, and the names preserved by the Arabs antediluvian. Aben Ezra, a celebrated Jewish writer who lived in the thirteenth century, refers to Albumazer as a great authority. He records that Auriga was called the Shepherd by the ancient Hebrews.

Ulugh Beigh, a Tartar prince and astronomer who lived about the middle of the fifteenth century, is considered to have transmitted the ancient Arabian science. His catalogue of the stars was printed by Dr. Hyde, with Commentaries, about 1660. See Hyde's Syntagma, &c. It has been since reprinted in England.

None of the Arabic names in Ursa Major and Minor have any reference to a bear. Dub in Hebrew is a bear; Dubhe is strength in Hebrew and Chaldee (Buxtorf). The bear was probably so named from its strength. El Acola, Hebrew and Arabic, is explicitly sheepfold, as other names are sheep and flock. In the Persian sphere there are three damsels walking, as "the daughters of Ash," and the same figures in Ursa Minor and Argo. There is no trace of a ship in any of them.


Prophecies corresponding in word or type with the figures and the names LEO
Texts where the word or its root is used in this sense in the Hebrew Bible Hebrew Roots
Gen 3:15 Hebrew name, Arieh, the lion rending pluck Psa 80:12 hr)
Gen 49:9
Num 23:24
Num 24:9
Arabic, Al Asad, the lion, who rends, who wasteth Psa 91:6 d#
Prov 19:12 Syriac, Aryo, the lion, who rends
Hosea 13:3
Matt 25:32
Coptic, Pi-Mentekeon, the plucking asunder Jer 22:24 qtn
Prov 20:2
Eze 1:10
Greek, Leon, the lion. Sept. Gen 49:9 NT Rev 5:5
Rev 4:7 Latin, Leo, the lion. Arab. and Syr. coming vehemently, leaping forth as a flame. Vulg. the same Exo 3:2 hbl

Names in the Sign

Psa 91:13 Heb., a Regulus, the treading under foot Isa 32:20 lgr
Psa 50:2   — Zosma, the shining forth sparkled Eze 1:7 Cc
Matt 24:27   — Sarcam, the joining wrapped
Job 40:17 gr#
  Arab., Minchir al Asad, the punishing, tearing, of the lion, (piercing) Job 30:17 rqn
Isa 2:11   — g Al Giebha, the exaltation Eze 17:24 hbg
Enoch in
Jude 14
Heb., b Denebola, the judge or lord who cometh quickly Lord Psa 110:1 Nd
hasty Eccl 7:9 lhb
    — Deneb. Aleced, the judge cometh, who seizes judge Psa 50:4 Nd
catch Psa 35:8 dkl
  — Arab. Al Dafera, the enemy put down thrust down Job 32:13 hpd

First Decan
HYDRA, The Serpent

Rev 20:2,3,10 Heb., Hydra, he is the abhorred Isa 66:24 Nw)rd