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A Commentary on the New Testament
from the Talmud and Hebraica
Exercitations upon the Evangelist St. John
Chapters 20 and 21
5. And he stooping down, and looking in, saw the linen clothes lying; yet
went he not in.
[He stooping down, &c.] Standing within the cave, he bowed himself to look
down into the place where the body was laid, which was four cubits lower than the floor of
the cave itself. See Bava Bathra about places of burial; which place I have quoted
and explained, Century Chorograph.
12. And seeth two angels in white sitting, the one at the head, and the other at the
feet, where the body of Jesus had lain.
[The one at the head, and the other at the feet.] So were the cherubims placed
at each end of the mercy seat, Exodus 25:18,19. As to those cherubims that were in
Solomon's Temple, 2 Chronicles 3:10, I cannot but by the way observe what I meet with in Bava
Bathra: "Onkelos the proselyte saith, 'The cherubims are like children going
from their master.'" That is, with their faces turned partly towards their
master, and partly towards the way wherein they were to go. For as the Gemarists,
"When Israel obeyed the will of God, the cherubims looked towards one another; but
when they did not, then they turned their faces towards the walls."
Thus Onkelos comments upon this place of the Chronicles. I hardly think he Targumizeth
on the book; for the Targum, at least that which is in our hands, renders it, Both the
cherubim are made of lily work.
17. Jesus saith unto her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but
go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to
my God, and your God.
[Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended, &c.] These words relate to what he
had spoken formerly about sending the Comforter, and that he would not leave them
comfortless, &c. And this probably Mary Magdalene's mind was intent upon when she fell
at his feet and would have embraced them. But he, "I must first ascend to my Father
before I can bestow those things upon you which I have promised: do not therefore touch
me and detain me upon any expectation of that kind; but wait for my ascension rather;
and go and tell the same things to my brethren for their encouragement."
23. Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever
sins ye retain, they are retained.
[Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted.] He had formerly given them a
power of 'binding and loosing'; and therefore probably bestows something more upon them
now than what he had conferred before. For,
I. It would seem a little incongruous for our Saviour to use an action so new and
unwonted, such as was his 'breathing upon them,' to vest them only with that power which
he had before given them.
II. The power of 'binding and loosing' was concerned only in the articles and decisions
of the law; this power which he now gives them reached to the sins of mankind. That power
concerned the doctrines; this, the persons of men.
Now that we may understand the words that are before us, let us a little consider what
is said, Luke 24:46: "Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and
to rise from the dead the third day: and that repentance and remission of sins should be
preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem." Which words we may
suppose he spoke before he uttered what is in this verse. And so might there not, upon the
occasion of those words, arise some such scruple as this in the apostles' breasts:
"Is it so indeed? must remission of sins be preached to those in Jerusalem who have
stained themselves with the blood of the Messiah himself? 'Yes,' saith he, 'for whose
soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them.'" To this those words of his upon
the cross have some reference, Luke 23:34; "Father, forgive them," &c. And,
indeed, upon what foundation, with what confidence could the apostles have preached
remission of sins to such wretched men, who had so wickedly, so cruelly, murdered their
own Lord, the Lord of life, unless authorized to it by a peculiar commission granted to
them from their Lord himself?
[Whose soever ye retain, they are retained.] Besides the negative included in
these words, that is, "If you do not remit them, they shall not be remitted,"
there is something superadded that is positive. That is,
I. There is granted to them a power of smiting the rebellious with present death, or
some bodily stroke.
II. A power of delivering them over to Satan. Whence had St. Peter that power of
striking Ananias and Sapphira with so fatal a bolt, whence St. Paul that of striking
Elymas blind, whence of delivering over Hymeneus and Alexander to Satan, if not from this
very commission given them by Christ? Christ himself never exercised this power himself.
There was not one person whom he struck either with death or any afflictive disease: some
indeed he raised, when they had been dead, and infinite numbers of the sick and diseased,
whom he cured: he snatched several from the power of the devils; he delivered none
to them. That the apostles therefore might be capable of performing things of so high a
nature, it was necessary they should be backed and encouraged by a peculiar authority:
which if we find not in this clause, "Whose soever sins ye retain, they are
retained," where should we look for it? And therefore, when he endows his apostles
with a power which he never thought fit to exercise in his own person, no wonder if he
does it by a singular and unusual action; and that was 'breathing upon them,' verse 22.
But we must know, that whereas, amongst other mighty powers conferred, we reckon that
as one, viz. 'delivering over unto Satan,' we are far from meaning nothing else by it but
'excommunication.' What the Jews themselves meant by that kind of phrase, let us see by
"Those two men of Cush that stood before Solomon, Elihoreph and Ahijah the
scribes, sons of Shausha. On a certain day Solomon saw the angel of death weeping: he
said, 'Why weepest thou?' He answered, 'Because these two Cushites entreat me that they
may continue here.' Solomon delivered them over to the devil, who brought them
to the borders of Luz; and when they were come to the borders of Luz they died."
Gloss: "He calls them Cushites [ironically], because they were very
beautiful. They 'entreat me that they might continue here.' For the time of their death
was now come: but the angel of death could not take their souls away, because it had been
decreed that they should not die but at the gates of Luz. Solomon therefore delivered them
over to the devils; for he reigned over the devils, as it is written, 'And Solomon
sat upon the throne of the Lord, for he reigned over those things that are above, and
those things that are below.'"
Josephus also makes mention of the power that Solomon had over the devils. God
taught him an art against demons. The belief of either of these stories is at the
liberty of the reader. Only from the former we may make this observation, That a power of
'delivering over to Satan' was, even in the Jews' opinion, divine and miraculous. We
acknowledge this to have been in the apostles, and in the apostles only: and I know
nowhere, if not in the words we are now treating of, from whence otherwise the original of
this power and authority can be derived.
III. It seems further, that at this very time was granted to the apostles a commission
to confer the Holy Spirit on those whom they found qualified, and that in these words,
"Receive ye the Holy Ghost": i.e. "Receive ye it to distribute it to
others." For although it cannot be denied but that they received the Holy Ghost for
other reasons also, and to others ends, of which we have already discoursed; yet is not
this great end to be excluded, which seemed the highest and noblest endowment of all, viz.
that Christ breathing upon them inspired them with the Holy Ghost, with this mighty
authority and privilege, that they should be capable of dispensing it to others also.
24. But Thomas, one of the twelve, called Didymus, was not with them when Jesus
[But Thomas, called Didymus, was not with them.] I. The evangelist does not
here, as the writers of lexicons, render the signification of a Hebrew name into Greek,
when he tells us, "Thomas is also called Didymus"; but only lets us know that as
he was called Thomas among the Hebrews, so was he called Didymus among the
Greeks. There is not another amongst the twelve apostles of whom this is said. Simon
indeed is called Peter; but these are really two distinct names: so was Nathanael called
Bartholomew: but Thomas and Didymus both one name, of one signification in different
languages. Perhaps Thomas was born in some place where the Jews and the Greeks
promiscuously inhabited: such a place was the region of Decapolis; and so by the Hebrews
he might be called by his Hebrew name, and the Greek by the Greeks.
II. The disciples had all fled and were dispersed when Christ was apprehended, Mark
14:50, except Peter and John. Whence it is said in verse 2 of this chapter, that Mary
Magdalene came to Peter, and "to the other disciple, whom Jesus loved"; for she
knew where she might find them; and so she could not for the rest. And thus
scattered, as it should seem, they passed over the sabbath day; but when they heard that
their Lord was risen, then they begin to associate again. But as yet Thomas had not got
amongst them; and indeed Peter himself had been absent too, but that having seen the Lord
he returned from Emmaus.
III. Thomas therefore not being present when our Saviour breathed on the rest and gave
them the Holy Ghost, are we to suppose that he, by his absence, was deprived of this gift
and privilege? No surely, for it was a privilege common to the whole apostolate, and
peculiar to them as Apostles: so that however by his absence he might have missed of it,
yet by reason of his apostolacy he could not. St. Paul, distant with a witness while these
things happened, both from the apostleship and religion too, yet when made an apostle, was
withal adorned with this privilege.
25. The other disciples therefore said unto him, We have seen the Lord. But he said
unto them, Except I shall see in his hands the print of the nails, and put my finger into
the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into his side, I will not believe.
[Except I shall see, &c.] They judge Moses once to have been thus weak and
wavering in his faith: "When the holy blessed God said to Moses, Go down, for the
people have corrupted themselves; he took the tables, and would not believe that Israel
had sinned, saying, 'If I do not see, I will not believe.'"
"Thou Racha, wouldest thou not have believed if thou hadst not seen?"
26. And after eight days again his disciples were within, and Thomas with them: then
came Jesus, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, Peace be unto
[The doors being shut.] I would not easily believe that the intention of the
evangelist in this place was to let us know that Christ penetrated the doors with his
body; but rather that the doors were shut for fear of the Jews, as verse 19; which he also
reiterates in this verse, that he might let us know the disciples were still at Jerusalem,
where their greatest danger lay. On the morrow, probably, they were to make towards
29. Jesus saith unto him, Thomas, because thou hast seen me, thou hast believed:
blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.
[Blessed are they that have not seen, and yet have believed.] "R. Simeon
Ben Lachish saith, 'The proselyte is more beloved by the holy blessed God than that whole
crowd that stood before mount Sinai. For unless they had heard the thunderings, and seen
the flames and lightnings, the hills trembling, and the trumpets sounding, they had not
received the law. But the proselyte hath seen nothing of all this, and yet hath come in,
devoting himself to the holy blessed God, and hath taken upon him the kingdom of
2. There were together Simon Peter, and Thomas called Didymus, and Nathanael of Cana
in Galilee, and the sons of Zebedee, and two other of his disciples.
[Simon Peter, and Thomas, &c.] Here are seven of the disciples mentioned,
and but five of them named. Those two whose names are not recited probably were Philip and
Andrew; as the four that were absent at the time were the sons of Alpheus, Matthew, Judas,
Simeon, and James. Compare those that are mentioned, chapter 1; and you may reasonably
suppose the person not named there, verses 37, 40, might be Thomas.
3. Simon Peter saith unto them, I go a fishing. They say unto him, We also go with
thee. They went forth, and entered into a ship immediately; and that night they caught
[I go a fishing.] Christ had ordered his apostles to meet him at a mountain in
Galilee, Matthew 28:16. It is plain, verse 14, that he had not yet appeared to them there:
so that it is something strange how they durst keep away from that mountain, and how the
four newly mentioned durst be absent from the rest of their number. They knew the mountain
without doubt; and if they knew not the time wherein Christ would make his appearance
amongst them, why should they not abide continually there in attendance for him?
It should seem, that they did not look for him till the Lord's day, which had not yet
been since they were come into Galilee. And perhaps the sons of Alpheus had, in their
return from Jerusalem, betaken themselves amongst their relations, determining to be at
that mountain on the Lord's day. These seven dwelt not far off the mountain, which was
near Capernaum, and hard by the sea of Galilee: only Nathanael, who dwelt more remote in
Cana, towards the extreme north parts of that sea. He was not yet gone home, but, waiting
the appointed time, stayed here. Peter and Andrew dwelt in Capernaum, and so, probably,
did James and John: Philip in Bethsaida, and Thomas (as we may conjecture from his Greek
name Didymus) probably lived amongst the Syro-Grecians in Gadara, or Hippo, or some
place in that country of Decapolis, not very far from Gennesaret.
5. Then Jesus saith unto them, Children, have ye any meat? They answered him, No.
[Children.] By what word soever Christ expressed this children to them,
it seems to be a very familiar and gentle compellation, that his disciples, from that very
salutation of his, might discern him. They did not know him by sight, as appears, verse 4:
he would have them know him, therefore, by the title he gave them.
[Any meat.] Very usual amongst the Rabbins may not unfitly be rendered meat
for one single repast: as if Christ should have said, "Children, have ye any meat
with you sufficient for a breakfast or a dinner?" But if any meat should
signify any sort of meat that must be eaten with bread, as Camerarius thinks, then
Christ's words seem to have this meaning: "Here, I have bread with me: have you taken
any thing, that we may eat this bread?" and so meat may be distinguished from bread.
15. So when they had dined, Jesus saith to Simon Peter, Simon, son of Jonas,
lovest thou me more than these? He saith unto him, Yea, Lord; thou knowest that I love
thee. He saith unto him, Feed my lambs.
[Lovest thou me more than these?] Why more than these? Might it not have
been enough to have said, "as well as these?" For what reason had he to
expect that Peter should love him more than the rest did? especially more than St.
John, whom Christ himself had so loved, and who had stuck so close to him?
Christ seems, therefore, to reflect upon Peter's late confidence, not without some kind
of severity and reproof: q.d. "Thou saidst, O Simon, a little while ago, that thou
wouldst never forsake me, no, not though all the other disciples should. Thou didst
profess beyond all the rest that thou wouldst rather die than deny me; thou wouldst follow
me to prison, to death; nay, lay down thy own life for me. What sayest thou now, Simon?
Dost thou yet love me more than these? If thou thinkest thou art provided, and
canst hazard thy life for me, feed my sheep; and for my sake do thou expose thy life, yea,
and lay it down for them."
[Feed my lambs.] If there be any thing in that threefold repetition, Feed,
Feed, Feed, we may most fitly apply it to the threefold object of St. Peter's
ministry, viz. the Gentiles, the Jew, and the Israelites of the ten tribes.
I. To him were committed, by his Lord, the keys of the kingdom of heaven, Matthew 16;
that he might open the door of faith and the gospel to the Gentiles, which he did in his
preaching it to Cornelius.
II. In sharing out the work of preaching the gospel amongst the three ministers of the
circumcision, his lot fell amongst the Jews in Babylon. James's lot was amongst the Jews
in Palestine and Syria: and John's amongst the Hellenists in Asia.
III. Now amongst the Jews in Babylon were mixed the Israelites of the ten tribes; and
to them did the gospel come by the ministry of St. Peter, as I have shewn more at large in
To this, therefore, have the words of our Saviour a plain reference; namely, putting
Peter in mind, that whereas he had, with so much confidence and assurance of himself, made
such professions of love and constancy beyond the other disciples, pretending to a
wonderful resolution of laying down his very life in that behalf, that he would now shew
his zeal and courage in 'feeding the sheep' of Christ:--"Thou canst not, Simon, lay
down thy life for me, as thou didst once promise; for I have myself laid down my own life,
and taken it up again. 'Feed thou my sheep,' therefore; and be ready to lay down thy life
for them, when it shall come to be required of thee."
So that what is here said does not so much point out Peter's primacy, as his danger;
nor so much the privilege as the bond of his office, and at last his martyrdom: for that
our Saviour had this meaning with him, is plain, because, immediately after this, he tells
him by what death he should glorify God, verse 18.
24. This is the disciple which testifieth of these things, and wrote these things:
and we know that his testimony is true.
[And we know that his testimony is true.] The evangelist had said before,
chapter 19:35, "He knoweth that he saith true"; and here in this place he
changeth the person, saying, "We know that his testimony is true."
I. One would believe that this was an idiotism in the Chaldee and Syriac tongue, to
make 'We' know, and 'I' know, the same thing: which is not unusual in other
languages also; Joshua 2:9, I know. The Targumist hath which you would believe to
be We know. 1 Samuel 17:28, I know. Targumist, We know.
II. We suppose the evangelist, both here and chapter 19:35, referreth to an eyewitness.
For in all judicial causes the ocular testimony prevailed. If any person should testify
that he himself saw the thing done, his witness must be received: for true
when it is said of any testimony, does not signify barely that which is true, but
that which was to be believed and entertained for a sure and irrefragable evidence.
So that the meaning of these words is this: "This is the disciple who testifies of
these things and wrote them: and we all know that such a testimony obtains in all
judgments whatever; for he was an eyewitness, and saw that which he testifies."
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