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Israel in Canaan Under Joshua and the Judges
Farther Course of Gideon - The Ephod at Ophrah - Death of Gideon - Conspiracy of
Abimelech - The parable of Jotham - Rule and End of Abimelech
THE tide of battle had rolled towards the Jordan. The fugitives seem to have divided
into two main bodies. The quickest, under the leadership of Zebah and Zalmunna, succeeded
in crossing the Jordan, and hastened towards the wilderness, while the main body of the
army, encumbered with women and cattle, fled in a south-easterly direction, trying to gain
the more southern fords of the Jordan within the possession of Issachar, and almost in a
straight line with that of Ephraim. The two kings were the object of Gideon's own pursuit,
in which he was joined by those of Naphtali, Asher, and Manasseh, who had shortly before
been dismissed from the battle. To overtake the other body of fugitives, Gideon summoned
the Ephraimites, directing them to occupy "the waters," or tributaries of
Jordan, unto Beth-barah (the house of springs) and the Jordan. The success of Ephraim was
complete. A great battle seems to have been fought (Isaiah 10:26), in which the leaders of
the Midianites, Oreb and Zeeb ("the raven" and "the wolf") were taken
and slain. The Ephraimites continued the pursuit of the fugitives to the other side of the
Jordan, bringing with them to Gideon the gory heads of Oreb and Zeeb. Strange and sad,
that their first meeting with Gideon after this victory should have been one of reproaches
and strife, on account of their not having been first summoned to the war - strife,
springing from that tribal jealousy which influenced for such evil the whole history of
Ephraim. Nor was the reply of Gideon much more satisfactory than their noisy
self-assertion (8:1-3). To us at least it savors more of the diplomacy of an Oriental,
than the straightforward bearing of the warrior of God.
While Ephraim occupied "the waters" and the fords of the Jordan, Gideon
himself had crossed the river at the spot where Jacob of old had entered Canaan on his
return from Padan-Aram. "Faint yet pursuing," the band reached Succoth; but its
"princes" refused even the most useful provisions to Gideon's men. The people of
the neighboring Penuel acted in the same heartless manner - no doubt from utter lack of
interest in the cause of God, from cowardice, and, above all, from scorn for the small
band of 300, with which Gideon had gone in pursuit of the flower of Midian's army. They
had calculated the result by the outward means employed, but were destined soon to feel
the consequences of their folly. Making a detour eastwards, through the wilderness, Gideon
advanced on the rear of Midian, and fell unexpectedly upon the camp at Karkor, which was
held by 15,000 men under the command of Zebah and Zalmunna ("sacrifice" and
"protection refused"). The surprise ended in defeat and flight, the two
Midianite leaders being made prisoners and taken across Jordan. On his way,* Gideon
"taught the men of Succoth," by punishing their rulers** - seventy-seven
in number, probably consisting of either seven, or else five "princes," and of
seventy or else seventy-two elders - while in the case of Penuel, which seems to have
offered armed resistance to the destruction of its citadel, "the men of the
city" were actually slain.
* In Judges 8:13 the rendering should be, "from the ascent of Heres,"
probably a mountain-road by which he came - instead of "before the sun was up."
** The notice in 8:14 (literally rendered), that the lad "wrote down for
him" the names of the princes, is interesting as showing the state of education at
the time even in so remote a district.
The fate of Gideon's princely captives did not long remain doubtful. It seems that he
would have spared their lives, if they had not personally taken part in the slaughter of
his brothers, which may have occurred at the commencement of the last campaign, and while
the Midianites held Jezreel - possibly under circumstances of treachery and cruelty,
prompted perhaps by tidings that Gideon had raised the standard of resistance. It may have
been to investigate the facts on the spot, that Gideon had brought back* the two
princes, or he may have only heard of it on his return. At any rate, the two Midianites
not only confessed, but boasted of their achievement. By the law of retaliation they were
now made to suffer death, although the hesitation of Gideon's son spared them the
humiliation of falling by the hand of a young lad.
* We gather that this took place either in Jezreel or at Ophrah from the
circumstance that Gideon's son had joined him: 8:20.
The deliverance of Israel was now complete. It had been wrought most unexpectedly, and
by apparently quite inadequate means. In the circumstances, it was natural that, in
measure as the people failed to recognize the direct agency of Jehovah, they should exalt
Gideon as the great national hero. Accordingly, they now offered him the hereditary rule
over, at least, the northern tribes. Gideon had spiritual discernment and strength
sufficient to resist this temptation. He knew that he had only been called to a temporary
work, and that the "rule" which they wished could not be made hereditary. Each
"judge" must be specially called, and qualified by the influence of the Holy
Spirit. Besides, the latter was not, as since the ascension of our Blessed Savior, a
permanent indwelling of the Holy Spirit as a Person, but consisted in certain effects
produced by His agency. The proposal of Israel could therefore only arise from carnal
misunderstanding, and must be refused.
But Gideon himself was not proof against another temptation and mistake. God had called
him not only to temporal, but to spiritual deliverance of Israel. He had thrown down the
altar of Baal; he had built up that of Jehovah, and offered on it accepted sacrifice.
Shiloh was deserted, and the high priest seemed set aside. Ophrah had been made what
Shiloh should have been, and Gideon had taken the place of the high priest. All this had
been by express Divine command - and without any reference to the services of the
tabernacle. Moreover, Gideon's office had never been recalled. Should it not now be made
permanent, at least, in his own person? The keeping of Israel's faith had been committed
to his strong hand; should he deliver it up to the feeble grasp of a nominal priesthood
which had proved itself incapable of such a trust? It was to this temptation that Gideon
succumbed when he asked of the people the various golden ornaments, taken as spoil from
the enemy.* The gold so obtained amounted to seventeen thousand shekels - or nearly
the weight of fifty pounds. With this Gideon made an ephod, no doubt with the addition of
the high-priestly breastplate and its precious gems, and of the Urim and Thummim. Here,
then, was the commencement of a spurious worship. Presently, Israel went to Ophrah,
"a whoring after it," while to Gideon himself and to his house this "thing
became a snare."**
* It is well known that the Midianites delighted in that kind of ornaments. We
recognize in this, even to the present day, the habits of the Bedawin. If we bear in mind
that the host of Midian consisted of 150,000 men, the weight of gold will by no means
** The Rabbis find here tribal jealousies against Ephraim, within whose
territory were Shiloh and the tabernacle.
In truth, the same spiritual misunderstanding which culminated in Gideon's arrogating
to himself high-priestly functions, had appeared almost immediately after that
night-victory of Jehovah over Midian. Even his reply to the jealous wrangling of Ephraim
does not sound like the straightforward language of one who had dismissed the thousands of
Israel to go to battle with only three hundred. Again, there is what at least looks like
petty revenge about his dealings with Succoth and Penuel; while it is difficult to
understand upon what principle, other than that of personal retaliation, he had made the
lives of Zebah and Zalmunna wholly dependent upon their conduct towards his own family.
And the brief remarks of Scripture about the family-life of Gideon, after he had made the
ephod, only tend to confirm our impressions. But, meantime, for "forty years in the
days of Gideon," "the country was in quietness," and, however imperfect in
its character, the service of Jehovah seems to have been, at least outwardly, the only one
professed. Matters changed immediately upon his death. Presently the worship of Baalim
becomes again common, and especially that of the "Covenant-Baal" (Baal-berith).
There is a sad lesson here. If Gideon had made a spurious ephod, his people now chose a
false "covenant-god." And, having first forsaken the Covenant-Jehovah, they next
turned in ingratitude from their earthly deliverer, "neither showed they kindness to
the house of Jerubbaal." Thus sin ever brings its own punishment.
Not far from Ophrah, but in the territory of Ephraim, was the ancient Shechem,
connected with so much that was most solemn in the history of Israel. We know the
long-standing tribal jealousy of Ephraim and their desire for leadership. Moreover, as we
learn from Judges 9:28, Shechem seems to have retained among its inhabitants the lineal
representatives of Hamor, the original "prince" and founder of Shechem in the
days of Jacob (Genesis 33:19; 34:2; comp. Joshua 24:32). These would represent, so as
speak, the ancient feudal heathen aristocracy of the place, and, of course, the original
worshippers of Baal. As perhaps the most ancient city in that part of the country, and as
the seat of the descendants of Hamor, Shechem seems to have become the center of Baal
worship. Accordingly we find there the temple of the "Covenant-Baal" (Judges
9:4). Possibly the latter may have been intended to express and perpetuate the union of
the original heathen with the more modern Israelitish, or "Shechem" part of the
population. Here then were sufficient elements of mischief ready: tribal jealousy; envy of
the great and ancient Shechem towards little Ophrah; hatred of the rule of the house of
Gideon; but, above all, the opposition of heathenism. It is very characteristic of this
last, as the chief motive at work, that throughout all the intrigues against the house of
Gideon, he is never designated by his own name, but always as Jerubbaal - he that
contended against Baal. Contending against Baal had been the origin of Gideon's power; and
to the heathen mind it seemed still embodied in that Jehovah-Ephod in the possession of
Gideon's sons at Ophrah. The present rising would in turn be the contending of Baal
against the house of Gideon, and his triumph its destruction. It only needed a leader.
Considering the authority which the family of Gideon must still have possessed, none
better could have been found than one of its own members.
Gideon had left no fewer than seventy sons. If we may judge from their connivance at
the worship of Baal around, from the want of any recognized outstanding individuality
among them, and especially from their utter inability to make a stand even for life
against an equal number of enemies, they must have sadly degenerated; probably were an
enervated, luxurious, utterly feeble race. There was one exception, however, to this; one
outside their circle, and yet of it - Abimelech, not a legitimate son of Gideon's, but one
by "a maid-servant," a native of Shechem. Although we know not the possible
peculiarities of the case, it is, in general, quite consistent with social relations in
the East, that Abimelech's slave-mother should have had influential connections in
Shechem, who, although of an inferior grade,* could enter into dealings with
"the citizens" of the place. Abimelech seems to have possessed all the courage,
vigor, and energy of his father; only coupled, alas! with restless ambition, reckless
unscrupulousness, and daring impiety. His real name we do not know;** for Abimelech,
father-king, or else king-father, seems to have been a by-name, probably suggested by his
natural qualifications and his ambition.
* This appears from the whole account of their transactions, in which the others
are always designated as "lords" of Shechem, in our Authorized Version,
"men of Shechem," or rather, probably, the citizens - what we would call the
"house-owners" of Shechem.
** This is rightly inferred by Keil from the meaning of the verb, insufficiently
rendered in our Authorized Version: "whose name he called Abimelech" (8:31).
The plot was well contrived by Abimelech. At his instigation his mother's relatives
entered into negotiations with the "citizens" or "householders" of
Shechem. The main considerations brought to bear upon them seem to have been: hatred of
the house of Gideon, and the fact that Abimelech was a fellow-townsman. This was
sufficient. The compact was worthily ratified with Baal's money. Out of the treasury of
his temple they gave Abimelech seventy shekels. This wretched sum, somewhere at the rate
of half-a-crown a person, sufficed to hire a band of seventy reckless rabble for the
murder of Gideon's sons. Such was the value which Israel put upon them! Apparently
unresisting, they were all slaughtered upon one stone, like a sacrifice - all but one,
Jotham ("Jehovah [is] perfect"), who succeeded in hiding himself, and thus
This is the first scene. The next brings us once more to "the memorial by the
vale"* which Joshua had set up, when, at the close of his last address, the
people had renewed their covenant with Jehovah (Joshua 24:26, 27). It was in this sacred
spot that "the citizens of Shechem and the whole house of Millo"** were
now gathered to make Abimelech king! Close by, behind it, to the south, rose Gerizim, the
Mount of Blessings. On one of its escarpments, which tower 800 feet above the valley,
Jotham, the last survivor of Gideon's house, watched the scene. And now his voice rose
above the shouts of the people.
* Wrongly rendered in our version "by the plain of the pillar," 9:6.
** That is, the inhabitants of Millo. Millo was no doubt the castle or citadel
close to Shechem.
In that clear atmosphere every word made its way to the listeners below. It was a
strange parable he told, peculiarly of the East, that land of parables, and in language so
clear and forcible, that it stands almost unique. It is about the Republic of Trees, who
are about to elect a king. In turn the olive, the fig tree, and the vine, the three great
representatives of fruit-bearing trees in Palestine,* are asked. But each refuses;
for each has its own usefulness, and inquires with wonder: "Am I then to lose"
my fatness, or my sweetness, or my wine, "and to go to flutter above the
* The Rabbis understand the three trees as referring to Othniel, Deborah, and
** So literally.
The expressions are very pictorial, as indicating, on the one hand, that such a reign
could only be one of unrest and insecurity, a "wavering" or
"fluttering" above the trees, and that, in order to attain this position of
elevation above the other trees, a tree would require to be uprooted from its own soil,
and so lose what of fatness, sweetness, or refreshment God had intended it to yield. Then,
these noble trees having declined the offer, and apparently all the others also,*
the whole of the trees next turn to the thornbush, which yields no fruit, can give
no shadow, and only wounds those who take hold of it, which, in fact, is only fit for
burning. The thornbush itself seems scarcely to believe that such a proposal could
seriously be made to it. "If in truth" (that is, "truly and
sincerely") "ye anoint me king over you, come, put your trust in my shadow;**
but if not (that is, if you fear so to do, or else find your hopes disappointed),
let fire come out of the thornbush and devour the cedars of Lebanon."*** The
application of the parable was so evident, that it scarcely needed the pungent sentences
in which Jotham in conclusion set before the people their conduct in its real character.
* This we gather from the fact that "the trees" successively solicit
the olive, the fig, and the vine, while afterwards "all the trees" are said to
turn to the thorn, as if all of them had been successively asked, and had declined.
** Seek shelter under my shadow.
*** That is, the noblest and the best. The thorn is easily set on fire - indeed,
fit for nothing else.
Jotham had not spoken as a prophet, but his language was prophetic. Three years, not of
kingdom, but of rule,* and the judgment of God, which had been slumbering, began to
descend. Scripture marks distinctly both the Divine agency in the altered feeling of
Shechem towards Abimelech, and its import as boding judgment.
* The expression in 9:22 is not that Abimelech reigned as a king, but that he
The course of events is vividly sketched. First, the citizens post "liers in
wait" in all the mountain passes, in the vain hope of seizing Abimelech. The
consequence is universal brigandage. This device having failed, they next invite, or at
least encourage the arrival among them of a freebooting adventurer with his band. It is
the season of vintage, and, strange and terrible as it may sound, a service, specially
ordered by Jehovah, is observed, but only to be prostituted to Baal. According to
Leviticus 19:24, the produce of the fourth year's fruit planting was to be brought as
"praise-offerings" (Hillulim) to Jehovah. And now these men of Shethem
"made praise offerings"* (Hillulim), but went with them into the house of
Baal-berith. At the sacrificial feast which followed, wine soon loosened the tongues. It
is an appeal to Baal as against the house of Jerubbaal; a revolt of old Shechem against
modern Shechem; in favor of the old patrician descendants of Hamor against Abimelech and
his lieutenant Zebul.** This insulting challenge, addressed in true Oriental fashion
to the absent, is conveyed by secret messengers to Abimelech.***
* Our Authorized Version translates wrongly 9:27: "And they went out into
the fields,.... and made merry." This last clause should be rendered, "and made
Hillulim - praise offerings."
** The language is very pictorial in its contrast of young Shechem with old
Shechem, or rather Hamor; and in laying emphasis upon the name Jerubbaal. The challenge to
Abimelech is, of course, not to be regarded as delivered to himself, but, as so common in
the East, addressed to an imaginary Abimelech.
*** The message of Zebul (9:31) was: "they raise the city against
thee," viz., in rebellion - not, as in our Authorized Version, "they fortify the
city against thee."
That night he and his band move forward. Divided into four companies, they occupy all
the heights around Shechem. Ignorant how near was danger, Gaal stands next morning in the
gate with his band, in the same spirit of boastfulness as at the festival of the previous
night. He is still, as it were, challenging imaginary foes. Zebul is also there. As
Abimelech's men are seen moving down towards the valley, Zebul first tries to lull Gaal's
suspicions. And now they are appearing in all directions - from the mountains, "from
the heights of the land," and one company "from the way of the terebinth of the
* In the Authorized Version (ver. 37) "the plain of the Meonenim."
Zebul now challenges Gaal to make good his boasting. A fight ensues in view of the
citizens of Shechem, in which Gaal and his band are discomfited, and he and his adherents
are finally expelled from the town. If the Shechemites had thought thus to purchase
immunity, they were speedily undeceived. Abimelech was hovering in the neighborhood, and,
when the unsuspecting people were busy in their fields, he surprised and slaughtered them,
at the same time occupying the city, which was razed to the ground and sowed with salt.
Upon this the citizens of the tower, or of Millo, sought refuge in the sacred precincts of
"the hall of the god Berith." But in vain. Abimelech set it on fire, and 1000
persons perished in the flames. Even this did not satisfy his revenge. He next turned his
forces against the neighboring town of Thebez. Reduced to the utmost straits, its
inhabitants fled to the strong tower within the city. Thither Abimelech pursued them.
Almost had the people of Thebez shared the fate of the citizens of Millo, when Abimelech's
course was strangely arrested. From the top of the tower a woman cast down upon him an
"upper millstone."* As the Rabbis put it, he, that had slaughtered his
brothers upon a stone, was killed by a stone. Abimelech died as he had lived. Feeling
himself mortally wounded, ambitious warrior to the last, he had himself run through by the
sword of his armor-bearer, to avoid the disgrace of perishing by the hand of a woman. But
his epitaph, and that of the men of Shechem who had perished by his hand, had been long
before written in the curse of Jotham.
* In the Authorized Version (ver. 53) "a piece of a millstone."
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